O que ficou por dizer no Dia Internacional dos Museus IV

Escrevemos  no último postal sobre a exposição “Racismo e Cidadania” integrada nos eventos da Capital Ibero-americana de Cultura: passado e presente”. 

Comissariada pelo insuspeito Francisco Bethencourt, abriu ao público no passdo dia 6 de maio no padrão dos Descobrimentos. Entretanto, durante esta semana foi anunciado o debate sobre este tema “racismo e cidadania” no São Luís, em Lisboa.

Como curiosidade, sobre a organização do debate, logo que foi conhecido, fera notória a ausência, entre dos “convidados”, das associações que têm denunciado a questão do racismo em Portugal e das associações ligadas à migração. Foi uma questão que ao longo da semana fui acompanhando, dando conta que sucessivamente a lista dos oradores foi sendo retificada com sucessivos acrescentos. Ainda bem que a razão acabou por imperar.

Curioso sobre a exposição, acabei por ter acesso ao portal sítio que ficou disponibilizado para divulgar a exposição. Tenho vindo a acompanhar alguns trabalhos do historiador, pelo que a abordagem do tema não é invulgar. Poderá talvez alguma estranheza do  tema ao procurar apresentar questão do racismo nos séculos XVI e XVII (cidadania será certamente um conceito que emerge no século XVIII, no contexto da Revolução Francesa). Mas essa anterioridade é precisamente a tese que o curador procura fundamentar. “A de que a exclusão do outro é um tema presente na sua representação desde sempre”.

Ainda com alguma curiosidade verifiquei que a maioria das imagens, sobre africanos, são as usadas por Isabel de Castro Henrique no seu livro “A Herança Africana em Portugal”. Assim com estranhei as ausência aos trabalhos de Alfredo Margarido, que denunciou a os processos da construção da imagem do outro no pensamento colonial.  Do King College é talvez distante da Biblioteca Nacional, onde o espólio deste nosso intelectual foi depositado vai já para meia dúzia de anos.

Curiosamente ainda verifiquei nesta exposição a referencia aos Cigni. Um povo nómada, migrante, que habita nas nossas vizinhanças em bairros sociais, cuja chegada está documentada no século XV. Uma memória excluída nos museus portugueses. Disposto a esclarecer a questão fui até Belém. Bati com o nariz na porta. Estava fechada até 29  para beneficiações na acessibilidade. (???)

Acabei por não ir ao Debate no São Luís. Não consegui viajar entre a Graça e o Chiado. A conhecida carreira 28 é hoje apenas acessível aos turistas. Não deixa de ser curioso a exclusão dos cidadãos lisboetas nesta sua cidade gentrificada. Para a próxima vou de tuc-tuc ou chamo um uber.

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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O que ficou por dizer no Dia Internacional dos Museus III

Entre os eventos com que a Câmara de Lisboa vai brindando os munícipes e visitantes, neste ano de 2017, comemora-se a “Capital Ibero-americana de Cultura: passado e presente” comissariada por António Pinto Ribeiro. Duas exposições ganham relevo nesta efeméride: A Exposição sobre “Racismos e Cidadania” no Padrão dos Descobrimentos, e os “Testemunhos da Escravatura: Memória Africana”.

Este último evento, preparado pelo Gabinete de Estudos Olissiponenses, apresenta um vasto programa de atividades, em diferentes museus da cidade. Com a curadoria de Anabela Valente e Ana Crsitina Leite, mobiliza 37 equipamentos da cidade, onde uma das suas peças integra esta memória. A ideia de criar uma rede de memória entre estes museus é valiosa e constitui uma salutar inovação na museologia da capital.

Também é sem dúvida de louvar esta intenção de dar visibilidade às Heranças Africanas nos museus de Lisboa. Uma herança que tem sido invisível e silenciada e por isso tema controverso . Já vai sendo tempo de integrar as narrativas sobre a diversidade nos museus portugueses.

Mas há algo de incómodo que transparece nesta intenção de integrar um tema controverso numa efeméride da cultura Ibero-americana, num registo de passado e presente. Há dois elementos de desconformidade: Espacial e Temporal.

Espacial, porque obviamente a intenção de trabalhar a memória africana, alarga e desloca o espaço ibero-americano para outro continente. não se trata dum espaço Ibero-americano, mas um espaço triangular com centro no Atlântico, com três vértices. Teria sido, talvez mais perspicaz desenvolver esta exposição no âmbito da UCCLA ou da CPLP.  Mas se consideramos que a diáspora africana há muito que se alargou pelo espaço ibero-americano, talvez se aceite a proposta.

Temporal, e esta questão é bastante mais incómoda, porque nesta exposição é feito um exercício gratuito de deslumbramento sobre a tragédia que foi o fenómeno do tráfico negreiro e nada é dito sobre o Presente. Teria sido sem dúvida fácil de integrar as comunidades africanas de Lisboa a colaborar nesta exposição. Não foi essa opção, e os museus de Lisboa continuam encerrados nos seus passados controversos.

Mas ao olharmos de forma crítica  exposição, o que mais impressiona é o branqueamento da memória africana e a ausência do seu contributo para a formação duma consciência sobre o fenómeno histórico e para a sua trágica dimensão.

E tanto mais grave é, porque é feita a partir dos herdeiros desse  tráfico. Daqueles que aprenderam nas escolas do Conde Ferreira e oraram nas capelas barrocas das Misericórdias.   O que nos quiseram dizer é que neste presente, nada há a refletir sobre essa “nossa” portuguesa e lisboeta história.

Teremos sem dúvida muitos exemplos, mas tomemos o exemplo da peça integrante da exposição do Museu Bordalo Pinheiro, agora renovado. Uma caneca cerâmica, figurativa e burlesca como era atributo deste ceramista.

Até aqui tudo certo. Mas porquê destacar a figura do Gungunhana em vez do Pai Paulino, ambas no mesmo espaço.

Sabemos que o Imperador Ronga (Vátua ou Landim como lhe chamaram os colonizadores), aprisionado nos finais do século XIX (1896), nos campos de Chaimite por Mouzinho da Albuquerque, foi um evento marcante para o domínio de Gaza e a segurança da então Baía de Lourenço Marques (nas chamadas campanhas de pacificação). Sabemos que o Imperador, com as suas várias mulheres foram desterrados para Lisboa, aprisionados em Monsanto, e posteriormente exilado nos Açores, onde Gungunhana acaba por morrer.

As suas várias mulheres (a poligamia era tradição nas terras vátuas) foram juntamente com o prisioneiro alvo da chacota pública. Já nos anos 70, o então presidente Ramalho Eanes, entrega às autoridades Moçambicanas a urna, daquele que é hoje um herói moçambicano, e que se encontra na Fortaleza de Maputo.

É essa personagem e esse momento que Bordalo Pinheiro molda na peça cerâmica. Um retrato dum tempo controverso, que hoje procuramos ultrapassar.

Sobre o Pai Claudino, também sabemos que era uma figura popular de Lisboa, combatente liberal, membro de várias confrarias. A questão é: porque escolher a representação do passado de forma acrítica, que hoje é um discurso controverso, em vez de uma outra representação, mais próxima do que pretendemos fundamentar na nossa cidadania.

Suspeitamos que a razão da escolha foi sobretudo estética. Talvez porque o diretor do museu (o meu bom amigo Alpuim, me desculpe) se tenha deslumbrado pela ironia de Bordalo Pinheiro e não tenha tomado atenção ao contexto. ´

Simplesmente o que acontece é que esta peça reproduz o estigma do outro como selvagem. O contrário do que se pretende com a aproximação cultural.

Tudo isto está escrito nos livros de História. Aprende-se nas universidades e devia-se aprender nas escolas, não falar da continuidade da ausência da memória africana no presente. Mas isso suspeito que tem a ver com a incapacidade que os museus de Lisboa têm em reconhecer a comunidade em que se inserem.

“Um museu que não serve para a vida não serve para nada”, escreveu Diana Bogado num capítulo da sua tese , que por estes dias defende a sua tese em Sevilha. Onde está a responsabilidade social destes nossos museus?  Para quando uma museologia com base na dignidade Humana?

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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O que ficou por dizer no Dia Internacional dos Museus II

O ICOM internacional propôs como tema para o dia internacional dos museus em 2017 a questão “Museums and contested histories: Saying the unspeakable in museums” que alguém traduziu por “Museus e histórias controversas: dizer o indizível em museus”.

Durante a semana que passou muitas foram as manifestações nos museus, que organizaram eventos para este “dia” e para a “noite dos museus”. Vale a pena realçar que o tema foi tratado nas Jornadas da Primavera do ICOM Portugal, que no Dia internacional tornou pública uma nota com o título “Contributos para uma urgente e necessária política museológica nacional” (http://icom-portugal.org/multimedia/documentos/2017_ICOMPT_PoliticaMuseus.pdf)

Ainda nessa semana Luís Raposo, presidente do ICOM Europa escrevia no Público um artigo de opinião sobre “Cultura tudo será feito quando calhar ser feito” (https://www.publico.pt/2017/05/15/culturaipsilon/noticia/cultura-tudo-sera-feito-quando-calhar-ser-feito-1771908).

São dois balanços, que procuram refletir a realidade de cultura portuguesa, a partir dos museus e do património, numa altura em que os eventos que são organizados permitem alguma visibilidade na comunicação social.

Na espuma dos dias e na pressão que todos têm para todos os dias se renovarem raramente são feitos balanços. Como escreveu em tempos Pierre Nora os excessos de comemorações conduzem a uma perde de referência sobre o que se pretende comemorar. Faltrá fazer uma balanço destes debates.

Na Critica de Raposo e no documento do ICOM fez-se o diagnóstico da política cultural. Talvez seja melhor dizer da “ação cultural” deste governo. Ação, porque não haverá uma “política” percetível para acultura. Por exemplo Raposo apresenta o conjunto de propostas que estavam presentes no programa de Governo, para sobre elas concluir que não constituem um programa. Conclui com ironia com aquilo que todos sabemos; que entre quem faz o programa e quem o executa, são cabeças diferentes. Ora como em cada cabeça cada sentença, não admira tanta inconsistência.

Depois da breve passagem de João Soares pelo Ministério, de onde saiu após uma truculenta troca de bengaladas, o atual ministro, diplomata de carreira, acalmou o setor e distribuiu os parcos recursos em função das agendas que foram surgindo. Na cultura, como na vida “Quem não chora não mama!”. Mais uns museus nacionais, mais umas verbas para os teatros. Mais uns funcionários para aqui, promessas de futuro acolá. Como o orçamento não estica, quando se pões dum lado, tira-se do outro.

A ação tem sido hábil e está longe de ser um erro de casting. Embora alguns apontem que não parece ter uma visão estratégica para a cultura; outros pontam que talvez o ministro seja o próprio Ministro dos Negócios Estrangeiros, se tivesse tempo para tal, não fora as preocupações com as migrações, o terrorismo, as instabilidades nas comunidades portuguesas. Ainda para outros talvez seja um bom ministro, que como diplomata que é talvez trabalhe mais nos corredores, longe dos holofotes, tecendo laboriosamente um caminho que só ele conhecerá.

Faltará uma estratégia para a cultura? Será possível uma estratégia para a cultura em estados de poder exíguo?

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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O que ficou por dizer no Dia Internacional dos Museus I : O Impronunciável

Tomei por empréstimo ao meu bom amigo Pedro Cardoso Pereira a palavra com que ele se tem vindo, esforçadamente, a procurar demonstrar nas suas Oficina Žylĕch que, o aqui e agora, é e não é simultaneamente, uma condição da humanidade. Como tal não há possibilidade de se falar, sem simultaneamente dizermos tudo e ao mesmo tempo não dizermos nada, e de quando dizemos algo, isso já não interessa para nada, porque o que é necessário que seja dito, ainda não está dito.

Não sei se o ICOM internacional é um leitor atento deste nosso colega, mas para 2017 convencionou-se (fico sempre na dúvida sobre quem é que são os iluminados que se lembram destas coisas) que o dia internacional dos museus tenha tido como tema “Museums and contested histories: Saying the unspeakable in museums” que alguém traduziu por “Museus e histórias controversas: dizer o indizível em museus”.

Os procedimentos de tradução, sobretudo de expressões idiomáticas podem ser complexos. Por exemplo: porque razão o termo inglês “contested” foi traduzido por controverso, e “unspeakable” por indizível? Eu sei que a hermenêutica tem sido uma disciplina pouco usada nas nossas academias, preocupadas com a produtividade e com a empregabilidade dos seus alunos. Também reconheço a utilidade do Google tradutor para resolver rapidamente este tipo de problemas, sem grande contestação ou controvérsia.

Ainda para mais, se em vez de indizível se tivesse escrito impronunciável, este dia 18 de Maio teria sido preenchido com uma multiplicação de Oficinas “Žylĕch”, o que garantiria mais um contributo da museologia portuguesa para o Mundo. Oportunidade perdida que eu contesto. Vá lá: Pelo menos talvez seja controverso, o que obviamente levantaria um problema à Patrícia Remelgado de criar a sua exaustiva listagem de atividades para este dia, todas com o mesmo nome, tivesse sido dizível.

Contudo não deixa de ser curioso que tanto tenha sido dito antes deste dia, e nada se diga depois? Afinal não há controvérsias nos museus portugueses? Haja alguém que conteste este estado de alma!

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Deste lado do Atlantico

Deste lado do Atlântico.

Gentes com outros olhares sobre a cidade, escrevem memorias nas ruas. Memorias das cidades. Que memorias escrevemos.

 

Documentario de Vania Breyner

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Museologia Social – Dig where we stand

Dig Where We Stand . -Cavar onde estamos. Uma proposta de trabalho para a sociomuseologia.

Nos anos 70 na Suécia a História Oral procurou trabalhar a partir desta permisa.  (Sven Lindqvist, Gräv där du står , 1978) foi o nome doartigo na Revista  Oral History journal (1979). Um artigo que defendia que as histórias das fábricas deveriam ser escritas de outros pontos de vista. A partir do ponto de vista do operários que pesquisam os seus próprios lugares de vida. Sven Linqvist procurou então escrever um manual para ajudar à escrita dos outros. Através dessa escrita surgiram escritas sobre as vizinhanças, sobre as suas vivências, os seus lugares de trabalho.

Tratou-se duma iniciativa que marcou a História Oral, e que permitiu verificar que a História é uma ferramenta importante, porque ela está entre nós.

Um dia disse-me César Lopes, que em 1974, no entusiasmo da revolução, os geólogos, procuraram difundir a geologia como uma ciência que permitia “conhecer o chão que pisamos”.

Não admira que tenham sido participantes nos Movimento da Nova Museologia. Uma museologia participativa.

Quais são os atuais objetivos:

  • procurar desenvolver uma investigação colaborativa com grupos interessados nas suas heranças comuns.
  • criar um espaço de pesquisa-ação na universidade lusófona
  • trabalhar e juntar diferentes elementos da comunidade sobre a sua arqueologia, história, oralidade, modos de vida no espaço
  • trabalhar com grupos para desenvolver iniciativas inovadoras na comunidade a partir das heranças.

 

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Seminário Museologia e Cidade: Diálogos Ausente

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Museologia e Cidade: Diálogos ausentes

18 de maio de 2017 – 10:00 – 18:00
Casa dos Amigos do Minho, R. do Benformoso 244, 1100-395 – Mouraria -Lisboa.

O Seminário MUSEOLOGIA E CIDADE: DIÁLOGOS AUSENTES adotando o princípio da multivocalidade, respeitando o direito a voz e o direito a escuta, propõe para o dia 18 de Maio – Dia Internacional dos Museus, discutir as práticas de auscultação e do diálogo simétrico, no âmbito da Sociomuseologia. A partir das narrativas de Associações Culturais de Lisboa e da Área Metropolitana sobre os trabalhos que estas vêm desenvolvendo acerca das memórias, identidades e patrimónios no território onde atuam, propõe a escuta ativa partir do lugar de enunciação dos diversos grupos sociais que compõem a cidade, que na maioria das vezes, não estão representados nos espaços de memórias, sobretudo nos museus.
O ICOM elegeu como tema para o 18 de maio, dia Internacional dos Museus o tema “Museus e histórias controversas: Dizendo o indizível nos museus.” Esta proposta destaca o papel dos museus como lugares de encontro e de mediação nas relações entre os povos. O tema nos convida à reflexão sobre formas e caminhos para aceitar os passados controversos como um primeiro passo para imaginar um futuro comum a partir da diversidade.
A escolha do indizível nos museus, como tema de trabalho, convida-nos a atuar na mediação dos traumas de histórias passadas, dando espaço e respeitando o direito de voz e de escuta da diversidade de pontos de vistas, procurando imaginar novos futuros construídos com base na Dignidade Humana, e incluir temas e questões tabus que permitem uma compreensão mútua.
A nossa proposta neste Seminário surge a partir da nossa observação dos diálogos ausentes com a cidade contemporânea por parte de alguns setores da Museologia. A cidade contemporânea nos impõe desafios que muitas vezes passam à margem dos museus. Compreendemos que os museus não podem ser reféns dos seus acervos e têm a possibilidade de refletir e problematizar questões nevrálgicas que atingem as cidades nas quais esses espaços oficiais de memórias estão inseridos.
Organização:
Museologia LusófonaMuseus Afro-digital: Estação Portugal – MINOM

PROGRAMA
10.00 Acolhimento dos Participantes
10.15 -10.30 – Fala de Abertura: Diálogos Ausentes. Newton de Souza
10.30 – 11.30 – Roda de Conversa
• Desafios a partir das experiencias:
o Associação Renovar a Mouraria
o Radio AfrLis – Associação cultural
o Moinho da Juventude –
11.30 – 12: 30 – Debate livre
13.00 Pausa Justa
14: 00 – Museologia e Cidade -Resignificações sobre as Políticas Pública para o Património
• Judite Primo e Pedro Leite “olhares sobre a cidade contemporânea”
• LuziaGomes, Vania Brayner e Mayra Zenun “experiencias e memórias na cidade de Lisboa”
15.00-15.30 Apresentação do Proposta de Museália dos cursos de doutoramento e mestrado em Museologia (2017).
16.00 – Discussão da Cartografia das Memórias da Cidade
16-30 -17.00 –Encerramento – Mário Moutinho : Diálogos Ausentes

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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A Diversidade Cultural na Lusofonia

Na sequência das comemorações do dia da Língua e da Cultura Portuguesa, que se realizou no dia 9  de Maio  no Palácio do Correio Mor, em Lisboa, foi inaugurada a exposição que sobre A “Diversidade Cultural na  CPLP” realizada no âmbito do Laboratório  Experimental de Museologia e Educação da Universidade Lusófona.

A exposição foi realizada no âmbito do vigésimo aniversário da Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa (CPLP) e tem como finalidade ser usada em contexto pedagógico.

A exposição é enviada em formato digital para as instituições com interesse na Comunidade e para as escolas dos Estados membros, e estará brevemente disponível.

Organizada num conjunto de 21 painéis, que agrupam oito módulos a exposição apresenta os seguintes temas :

  • CPLP – Uma instituição solidária;
  • Lugares que habito e me habitam;
  • Narrativas temporais;
  • Viagens à Natureza;
  • Olhares e gestos;
  • Memórias acesas;
  • As nossas línguas;
  • Os sons da Língua.

A exposição  procura mostrar a diversidade cultural na Lusofonia a partir da integração de conteudos geoculturais. Foi inspirada nos trabalho do XVII Conferencia Internacional do MINON. e na sua Misssiva “Memória Acesa” numa  leitura poética sobre a diversidade cultural deste espaço geocultural

O dia 5 de Maio – Dia da Língua Portuguesa e Cultura na CPLP foi  ser celebrado com um conjunto de eventos, organizados pelos grupos de embaixadores dos Estados membros da CPLP em diversas capitais do mundo, pela Sociedade Civil e pelos governos.

O dia 5 de maio foi instituído como o Dia da Língua Portuguesa e da Cultura na CPLP, a 20 de julho de 2009, por resolução da XIV Reunião Ordinária do Conselho de Ministros da CPLP, decorrida na cidade da Praia, Cabo Verde.

A conferencia Políticas Culturais e Economia do audiovisual da CPLP, que decorreu juntamente com a cerimónia de abertura, pode se vista aqui

Museu AfroDigital – Estação Portugal

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Nova Agenda Europeia para as cidade

Fórum das cidades: uma iniciativa da DGOT.
http://www.forumdascidades.pt/?q=plataformas

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Museologia e Educação na Infância I

Children are the common basis for all dimensions of sustainable development. No advances in sustainable development will occur in coming decades without multiple generations contributing to societal improvement. Moreover, beyond sheer survival, children have a right to thrive, develop to their full potential, and live in a sustainable world.

Around the world, governments, organizations, and communities are working to improve the life chances of young children, from universal prekindergarten programs in the United States, to the Integrated Child Development Services in India, to the Madrasa Early Childhood Program in East Africa. In spite of these efforts, it is currently estimated that 250 million children under the age of 5 worldwide are failing to meet their development potential.

A range of powerful risk factors lead to this incredible loss of human potential. Malnutrition, lack of access to clean water and sanitation, lack of stimulation and learning opportunities, and many other challenges result in high odds of early mortality, school failure, early pregnancy, joblessness, and costly disease.  The levers for change rest in local and community strengths that promote resilience, as well as national and global action. Recognizing the interconnectedness of poverty reduction, health, education, agriculture, energy, gender equality, social inclusion, and development within planetary boundaries should place children and an inter-generational vision of development at the heart of the work of the 2015-2030 Sustainable Development Goals.

This course draws from research in neuroscience, psychology, economics, anthropology and program implementation and evaluation in order to discuss Early Childhood Development and explore its role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Completing the course will lead to understanding:

The ways in which children grow during this most rapid phase of development (physical, social, cognitive, emotional)

  • How the environment interacts with the body to build brain architecture and influence children’s growth and development
  • Milestones of child development, what is it that children know and can do at birth, by the second year, by preschool age
  • How child development and its contexts vary across cultures and societies
  • How can programs and policies support children’s development?
  • How can they best be implemented to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals related to children and youth?
  • How can innovation push forward the field of ECD program development and how can you participate?

 

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Museologia Social e Urbanismo LIV

A 9-point agenda to achieve sustainable cities

Discussion prompts:

  1. Discuss the inter-linkages between the various priorities in Jeff’s 9-point agenda.

As you’ve learned in this course around world urbanization is a fundamental mega trend and as you know, in the coming decades, there will be a massive increase of population in the world’s urban areas, the estimates from the United Nations Population division are that the urban population will rise from a current level of around 4 billion people to more than 6 billion by 2050.

So this is a monumental challenge simply to absorb this massive increase in population, but we’re looking for something much more than simply absorbing a population because the fundamental objectives of Sustainable Development is that we combine three basic purposes and that is economic progress or prosperity, social inclusion or justice and environmental Sustainable Development even though each of these three is hard enough to achieve, human well-being depends on achieving all of them together.

I’ll mention Nine key points of what I believe will be required to achieve 21st century sustainable cities especially in today’s emerging economies so-called in Asia and in Africa.

The first point obviously it’s a theme of the entire course is that cities should be goal-based. that’s not to be taken for granted the idea that our collective actions, whether in politics of or in civil society should be guided by explicitly set objectives is not only not self-evident, it’s not the practice if in general, but the whole idea of the Sustainable Development Goals is that by setting clear, specific even quantified targets and timelines that we can give a boost – a better lever to mobilizing the enormous amounts of cooperative effort that are required to achieve human well-being in this very crowded world, and a crowded world experiencing tremendous flux and tremendous technological change as well as tremendous environmental instabilities.

The second point of a 21st century sustainable city is that they must be places of high skills and of learning and of innovation. In other words, the city is a learning hub, a city is a an urban school, I don’t mean the schools within the city I mean the city as integral organism has to be a place where there’s tremendous learning, technical knowledge and therefore the ability to harness the best technologies and to create decent jobs and competitive industries in which the city and earn its way in the national economy and in the world economy.

As you look back on your SDG chart – SDGs 3 and 4 are that the children are that healthy and well educated and this is a key part of creating highly productive people within the cities and SDG4 emphasizes the basic fact that learning starts at preschool, it continues through primary and secondary education and it must continue with vibrant universities. Now the third point I want to make is that in order to accomplish this seeming near miracle of incorporating more than 2 billion additional urban denizens by 2050 and doing so in a way that offers jobs, clean environment, social fairness – it’s daunting under any circumstances but it would be I think essentially impossible if we didn’t have some of the wonderful tools that we have, the most important breakthrough of our age of course is the Information and Communications Technology revolution- the ICT revolution.

First I would say e-governance because when government itself is transparent, online, participative – this will not only provide government services far more effectively but it will enable democratic participation far more effectively as well.

The second aspect of the ICT revolution is the so-called Internet of Things and one major part of the internet of things will be energy-efficiency, I’ll come back to that in just a moment because that’s crucial for fighting the Climate Change challenge- SDG13.

The next point that I want to emphasize the fourth point is sustainable consumption and production and I think the SDG 12 sometimes called the Circular Economy goal is really key especially in urban areas sometimes when soot or pollution is put into the environment, if it’s a small amount and populations are highly dispersed or people aren’t around it’s possible that there is the natural dissipation of this pollution, but when you’re in an urban area with thousands of people packed together per square kilometer, when traffic is densely packed together, when multiple modes of transport of public transportation – rail, metro, bus, trucking are altogether, if we don’t manage the circular flow of production, the waste, the recycling, we’re going to end up, as many places have ended up, living in our own waste and living therefore very very dangerously.

So the circular economy is about cleaning up after ourselves; it’s making what is now waste into either an input into production of something else useful or into recycling or into a proper disposal that is safe for humanity and the ecosystems. And circular economy applies to air quality management, water management, treated water and waste water treatment, the recycling of physical products whether it’s recycling of paper and organics made into fertilizer and composting or recycling of plastics and other materials.

The fifth point that I would mention is the urban design. The point that I would emphasise is that every city needs that kind of a planning base for the human settlements and one of the things that’s been found as a general proposition is that densely settled mixed-use urban plans where commercial areas and residential areas are combined, where streets are not only places for traffic but for people to walk, to shop, to be with each other, to sit outside and eat – these are the kinds of high quality life that a good urban design can offer.

The sixth point that I want to emphasize is the need for a low-carbon city in a low-carbon world. This is achievable but it’s not going to be achieved unless we are absolutely looking ahead and planning ahead because achieving a low-carbon economy requires a long-term plan, not simply going day-to-day wringing our hands or saying we must do this; but a 30 or 40 or 50 years strategy.

The seventh point that I want to make is that the Information and Communications Technology is creating a new kind of business model, the so-called share economy so is people know all over the world – now we call on your mobile phone, a vehicle comes and the advent of these services will be much more efficiency and lower costs because by getting in that vehicle that shared vehicle which will be used by a different person, a different person all through the day- this is going to be much more cost-effective for us than owning our own vehicle and already we’re seeing in many places car ownership going down.

What we know that this shared economy is coming not only for vehicles, it’s coming for buildings – both residential and commercial buildings, in a way it’s coming for jobs also and the essence of this, is that it will be able to reduce resource-use, will be able to reduce congestion, will be able to save on the scarce physical capital and natural capital in order to achieve sustainability.

The eight point that I want to emphasize is that a sustainable city or sustainable metropolitan area needs a financial plan, much of what I talked about it in terms of low-carbon energy or new transport systems or high-quality health and education systems- SDG3 and SDG4. Well, cities need a financing plan to be able to mobilize this investment and provide these services, there’re very big difficult complicated questions in financing – how to finance the housing stock, how to finance the physical infrastructure of roads, power, how to finance the recycling and the waste management operations.

There’s no simple answer I could even begin to propose the useful comprehensive story in a short period of time except to say that taxes, proper public pricing, collecting land grants, using the value of public land in creative ways to create value for example, either selling the land or leasing the land or collecting taxes and improved land in order to be able to fund public services.

We need tax and financial systems that aren’t defined by our administrative units necessarily but by our broader economic units so metropolitan-area scale taxation- well this is tough, this is real political economy, this is the interest of the rich versus the poor and this is partly political struggle, it’s partly finding fairness in how rich areas can help to ensure services for poor areas even if they’re in different political jurisdictions.

The ninth and final point that I want to make is that if we do everything right and if we have long-term plans, vision, morality, a sense of inclusion, fairness, justice even if we do everything right the stresses are going to be tremendous.So we need cities that are resilient. Cities that are able to absorb shocks that regrettably are going to come and we have to have cities that are prepared for that. What are some of the shocks that are likely, well we know that we’ve already built-in some rise of sea-level.

If we have bad luck that rise could actually be several meters and that would be devastating for many coastal cities around the world and to the coastal erosion and the storm surges and the flooding that are already occurring because of that.

The ultimate purpose of sustainable development is human wellbeing. Cities will be home to the large majority of humanity in the 21st century and what I have tried to emphasize, is that we need to think ahead, plan ahead, have a goal-based development, be trained, well-educated, smart, innovative using our new technologies in order to achieve sustainable cities in the 21st century.

[1] https://www.uclg.org/

[2] Goal of UCLG-Increasing the role and influence of local government and its representative organisations in global governance; -Becoming the main source of support for democratic, effective, innovative local government close to the citizen; -Ensuring an effective and democratic global organisation.

[3] http://prepcom3surabaya2016.id/home/

[4] http://www.iclei.org/

[5] http://www.sparcindia.org/aboutnsdf.php

[6] http://www.achr.net/

[7] http://www.citiesalliance.org/

[8] ttps://co2.myclimate.org/en/footprint_calculators/new?gclid=CjwKEAiAxKrFBRDm25f60OegtwwSJABgEC-ZeMIeFxqvyvrW9cOEKWcWgEGw7B0rQBGMU

[9] http://ghsl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Museologia Social e Urbanismo LIII

Urban research and methods

  1. Discuss the various questions that have come up over the course of the MOOC that you’d like to follow up on and research. Also share the various challenges you think you might face in conducting that research.

I know in the past you have been hearing how important research is for I’d like to talk about, in broad terms the different kinds of research modalities there are, that will help support inclusive, sustainable, urban development. First of all, what are the general issues faced by researchers in the field of city and regional planning? Secondly, we will look at the various approaches and the various modalities that are used to conduct research, the different kinds of measurements, their advantages and disadvantages, the different kinds of research designs, how local knowledge and peer-to-peer exchange and best-practice information are helpful for research and lastly, I’ll make a plea for supporting multidisciplinary and multi-disciplinary methods of research.

Today there are three global conversations that are pervading every person’s, thoughtful person’s mind – the first one is how to address issues of peace and conflict, the second one is what is Climate Change going to do and how is this going to affect us and lastly, how can we address this growing problem of inequality.

Underlying all of these, is the theme and question of urbanization, i.e. with urbanization how are these three conversations shaped? The central question then that really pervades these three global conversations and the fact that the cities are so important is this – ‘what are the key policies that we can employ to make sure we achieve inclusive, sustainable, urban development?” What are the policies that can protect and underguard the trend to urban life, the trend to cities creating the global GDP and the trend to making the biggest changes in Greenhouse Gas emissions in urban areas.

These are research questions and there are many ways to approach these questions- first, we can benchmark and measure what’s happening in places with regard to some of these things.

Secondly, we can engage in structured social science research that will help us understand what kinds of policies, what kinds of efforts work and don’t work, we can also turn to local knowledge to make sure that we’re informing our research designs and our decision-making with the kinds of information that people who are living in cities and living in neighborhoods and living with the issues and problems that we’re studying can help inform and lastly, as research and information and knowledge develops over time, best practices emerge.

We can study and use best practices particularly identifying the critical success factors to share how to move forward to identify the drivers and the kinds of policies will enable us to have sustainable and inclusive urban development.

And what are the sources of this knowledge? Many many sources – multilateral organizations, government and bilateral organizations, practitioners and professional, NGOs and advocacy groups,the academia and research institutes, the private sector, philanthropy, citizens. Research comes in in helping articulate the goal, helping articulate the target and most important inventing and understanding the set of indicators or measures that will see if we’re moving towards a particular policy framework. Housing, transport, open space, environment, heritage, planning and resilience – these are things that can be measured if we have the data and this is the big question, particularly when you’re engaged in any sort of urban research.

Normally researchers turn to traditional census data – United Nations for example, does collect and assemble composite data on urbanization and tells the world- the rate of urbanization, level of urbanization, location of urbanization but you have to understand there’re deep limits to this data.

1) The definitions really vary as to what urban is and even though the United Nations does its best to reconcile the different definitions, we need to look and understand what these differences are in order to understand what you’re dealing with.

So we’re not actually comparing apples to apples here, when we’re looking at that UN data; so just remember when you’re using it, it has its limits. Management counts too – when you’re thinking about censuses and how data is collected. India has stringent definitions for urban but has not updated that definition for 50 years, and there are other issues besides that – there are delays and redrawing municipal boundaries as areas expand and we know there’s a great deal of urban growth in India, at the moment and in the future. But the point is understand what you’re dealing with when you’re dealing with the data that is coming to you from census. We also have at our fingertips, all sorts of resources and what we’ll call the Big Data Area, we have the capacities of mobile phones and the information that they are giving us and many other devices that will help us understand what’s happening in the urban arena. I’d like to turn now to some other ways of collecting information- we talked briefly about Big Data but I think perhaps the most promising are the advances that are now being made in spatial analysis, what you’re seeing in front of you here is an illustration of the number of little satellites that are going around the globe, now right now as we’re watching and talking – there are many of them and they are taking images of different resolutions of land areas throughout the world. And we started doing this globally in the 1950s when the Sputnik went gone up, by 1970s we set the first land satellite which particularly measured land development and improved that through 2013. The improvement in the capacity of this measurement is illustrated by this slide as you see the improvements in the imagery on the top and the bottom looking at Delhi and how much clearer it is as the technology has advanced.

There are two other spatial protocols that came into place in 2014 – the Global Urban Footprint[8] which was put forward by the German Aerospace Centre which provides nodes of definition which you can see here on the right, and the Global Human Settlements Layer[9] which is a new satellite that has a much higher resolution than any of the previous satellites and can get you right down to the shape of a building in that resolution.

So as we think about how we’re going to measure, we need to think about how we can link the census data, census numbers-based data with the spatial data in order to measure the things that we think are important when we’re doing urban research.

Next I’d like to talk about structured social science studies and particularly the debates that often go on between qualitative and quantitative studies. For purposes of this discussion we just want to recognize that each one of these approaches when engaged in has particular strengths and particular weaknesses and when you choose to use one or both because some researchers blend quantitative and qualitative research with a mixed-method approach, you just need to know what you’re going to get once you engage in that research.

And with the quantitative statistically- based research, you’ll get patterns that you could use to predict, with the qualitative case, ethnographic study, you’ll get in-depth understanding that might help you really understand what is going on in a particular place but doesn’t necessarily reflect what’s happening broadly.

We also need to give importance and recognition to the ability of people living in cities to reflect on and give information back about the conditions of their cities and also to be the researchers themselves and lastly, let’s talk a little bit about peer-to-peer knowledge exchanges. Oftentimes, delegations of practitioners, of municipal leaders, of local advoc

ates from local advocacy organizations will convene to exchange their information, their local knowledge about what’s worked and been successful in their places, with others who are trying to do similar things. And this allows for real-time, practice-based information to be exchanged.

Lastly I’d like to end with a plea for us to remember that there is no one single discipline that is going to provide all the answers for places that are as complicated as cities.

Let’s take a look at this issue of food security – we are not going to have prosperous cities if people can’t eat, we’re not going to have cities that are socially inclusive if people are food insecure or we are not going to have healthy cities if people are not eating the right kinds of food and are ending up with food-related diseases.

So how do we need to solve this problem? We need to solve this problem starting with developing the rural-urban linkages that understand the production of food, the distribution of food, the marketing of food, we need to talk to the nutritionists, we need to talk to the land conservationist, we need to talk to the marketers, business people; these are just a few of the people that one needs to talk about when we’re talking about food security which is so essential to having sustainable city.

So as we go forward I want you to remember that the key items that we are talking about in this session: the great variety of sources of research; the great variety of approaches to research; the fact that there is no one perfect kind of research because each one has its weaknesses. Each one has its strengths and the necessity of understanding what the capacities are of each form of research and contributing it to the larger problem. The central question of how do we create inclusive sustainable places.

 

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Museologia Social e Urbanismo LII

Urban innovation: community based organisations and the civil society

  1. Discuss other local, regional, national and international organisations that work in the space of urban sustainable development.

Well, that history starts off with how NSDF and SPARC started working together. NSDF – The National Slum-Dweller’s Federation[5] was a bunch of people, men from about eight cities who had been fighting evictions and Jockin’s work with the Janta colony moving to Cheetah camp became seminal in community people feeling that their voice wasn’t the voice that professionals were presenting to the outside world. One thing led to another and when we started SPARC and started working with Pavement Dwellers they came to us and said let’s work together.

Out of that came a bunch of things that emerged from our collective interest – one was the right of poor people to collect their own data and our capacity as professionals to compile it in a way that it actually challenged government data on poor people but the most powerful thing was that because we had already started working with women’s networks, we created a way by which this networking of women’s collectives got embedded into NSDF.

And so out of all this came three or four very important principles – one is that there’s no such thing as only self-help that the state has to participate in solutions for the poor, you can’t leave it to the city to solve all the problems, the nation-state has to be involved and that a role – them as the leaders of the movement and us as professionals had to find some middle way, which wasn’t based on the political ideology of middle-class, angry activists or populist stuff that poor people ended up doing for party political propositions.

How do you find this middle-way? What do you do? And while we were doing that we met Somsook who was bringing HIC to Asia and so we all became members of the Asian Coalition of Housing Rights (ACHR) in 1988. Our contribution to that was to share all these tools with the women savings groups as means of teaching women, collective leadership, of trusteeship of money, managing finances, data collection and negotiation of new solutions with the government; that came from Mahila Milan.

And so out of that engagement we contributed to the creation of federations as against the more traditional and conventional way by which you just took some professional went to 3-4 slums, started working there, you worked there till there was a project and when the project got over you moved on. It was not scalable, it was not sustainable and it didn’t leave any residue, so we learned a new word that residue is not a bad word that in the end your investment should produce something that people can continue with and that’s what the federations did – it produced a sustainable leadership cohort that could take their own agenda forward, and that inspired other poor people.

And we also met Fr. Anzorena who started giving us all money- ACHR[6] and ourselves to encourage poor people to visit each other you know to see with their own eyes, to encourage other people, to work. So out this came this bundle of strategies that we call the Federation Model – after Nelson Mandela got freed and came back and there was news of majority rule, we all got, all the housing activists in Asia, Africa, Latin America got invited to a very historic meeting in Johannesburg where we met the leaders of 80 townships from all over South Africa.

I hadn’t gone for that meeting but Jockin had gone. I mean all of them, had fought all this saying that democracy will give us that and he kept telling them that democracies only giving you the right to challenge your state, it doesn’t give you lollipops on your lap.

So for the next two years, groups from India, from our Federation went to South Africa, we met a lot of the NGOS there trying to convince them to explore this ideology but most of them rejected it.

They felt very comfortable to continue their associations with the civic movement and with the ANC (African National Congress), people thinking that that will continue their legitimacy. We had just experienced what happened in the Philippines where all the talented senior leadership went into government and created a huge vacuum.

By 1996, eight countries got together and said let’s start Slum Dwellers or Shack Dwellers. So in Asia it’s called slum dwellers, in Africa its called shack dwellers – we started like that. And so the principles again on which, now on looking back, we started was that whatever we did was accessible with support, with whatever legitimacy we could give them to any community movement that wanted it, and then as our process matured we had government officials and Mayors and administrators in different countries championing this process because they saw it useful to them. What happened is one country’s ideas went to the other; till then we never looked at subsidies in India. We said ‘Who’ll go to government and look for subsidy?’

So we started going to government and saying where is your subsidy, where is it? So you had this big cohort of community networks each one springing up with what they wanted to do and so that’s how it all started. Well, Habitat-II we were very involved, lots of our networks were actually part of government delegations and everything but we were still young as a global movement, we had lots of people telling us that we were politically incorrect, we didn’t know global language and the attitude of the slum dwellers was you know ‘if we say bad words we say bad words, we are the people on whom you’re doing development, you have to learn our language, we don’t have to learn your language.

So that was part of our gearing up to build the confidence of community leaders, to be able to express themselves, to not feel apologetic, to not worry if they didn’t understand these big words or something, be very comfortable to call for a 1996 and 2000- I think that’s our coming of age; MDGs were in 2000.By 2000 we had many of the international representatives who used to come to UN – Habitat and other places very intrigued with what they saw and our whole strategy was that we weren’t going to raise money, we were going to get opportunity, to get them to influence our governments and increasingly housing ministers and mayors or commissioners, started coming to the Federation to say ‘we want to do this with you.

So We started doing MOUs with them and so out of this process, this methodology that now is our signature came up – which is that unless you have a citywide network of slum dwellers, their voice is not heard. Their voice becomes constructive if women are central participation of that process. And we also felt that it’s a very important part of the strategy of this movement to contest the solutions that come from top. So instead of being apologetic of why poor people will sell something that doesn’t work for them and go back and live in the slum as something ‘Oh, very bad’, let’s find out why people do that and present that to government.

Now many of the solutions that people have explored are not solutions that are considered good by the development community and our principal has always been – you have to experiment, you have to make mistakes, it’s better you make the mistakes than somebody else because then your whole movement learns and that if anything doesn’t go to scale, you kill it.

So over a period of time the appropriation of this, I mean if you talk to all the networks they wont sit and say ‘Oh the Indians did, it’s now theirs and that’s the way we want it, we don’t want anybody to feel that you are the you know you’re like the the pope of this institution; because it’s supposed to be knowledge that blows with the wind, that’s available to people.

And so at some point we came to a situation where we said we don’t need everybody to be a member of SDI to learn this because earlier we were, we said you know unless you do it in a proper way women won’t be involved, data won’t be correct and then we began to say that there is always dilution when you move to scale.

So what degree of dilution can you cope with? And so that’s when we began to encourage other people to employ this and it’s through that process that for instance we have come into Cities Alliance[7].

Our goal is very simple – we want to mainstream this in development, to say that you cannot have – whether you are a World Bank, a UNDP, or a bilateral or a country program, if you don’t make a citywide plan, you don’t incorporate this process over a 5 to 10-year period; you can forget about it, better that you don’t do anything.

So those are the kinds of things that we move on and now gradually we have even expanded to start working with other global networks of people in livelihood, so WIEGO, the Huairou Commission, saying any grouping that has a embedded focus on informality, that is multi-country, that has a stated commitment to women’s issues, we don’t want only a woman’s process but we want to focus on that, we’ll share whatever we do with them, we’ll help each of us to represent the others, because we can’t all be the same place at the same time. And so those are the kinds of things that we do as SDI and now we’re looking at issues of energy, we’re looking at issues of Climate Change but very clear that our focus is the informal urban poor.

 

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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Museologia Social e Urbanismo LI

Who can enable and implement this change towards sustainable urban development?

  1. Discuss other international agencies that have been investing in the urban that you know about.

The journey from Habitat – I to Habitat – II and now to Habitat -III – it has not been straightforward. It has been a bit bumpy in several forms, but it has brought some clear outcomes. And I think now, Quito and the policy outcome of this conference called the ‘New Urban Agenda’ should be aware of some of the positive elements that these two other conferences and the process brought. For instance, if you think in Habitat II there were, in my view, were two or three things that are quite positive and I think they should be added to Habitat-III.

One is the fundamental role that was given in terms of decentralization policies to local actors and local authorities. I think that this is a positive achievement that the discussions today tend to forget little bit, that in a new world, in a world that needs to integrate from the very global to the very local, local authorities are playing a fundamental role in the process.

Second, is although it was there, it is Habitat II who brought that, is the fundamental aspect of housing and the rights associated to housing, and from there the connection to the ‘Right to the City’.

I think it’s a fundamental social and political achievement that we also need to be aware of and to understand that Habitat-III needs to be a platform to build up on these things.

And third, important one, many people tend to forget that Habitat-II created, at least for the UN system the notion of data collection, measurement which has to do with monitoring and which has to do with advocacy in the use of this information for policy, but also in the transparency and the accountability of who is responsible in achieving Habitat-II and the Habitat Agenda and how. And as a result of Habitat-II the global urban observatory, the local observatories, best practices were created.

All these important achievements. There are other things that were not that good in Habitat-II, are even less in Habitat-I.

For instance when you read the documents you will be very surprised to see two or three things. One, inequality is not mentioned, not even once in Habitat-I and in Habitat-II; only one time the word inequality appears. Which is telling you that the fight was really on poverty.

There was some conceptual misunderstanding that poverty and inequality were the same things. And today it is clear that they are unfolding and taking parallel routes, they are two different fights to be fought in two different battlegrounds, we can say, and inequality is becoming an agenda in itself, that was not there.

The role of migrants from rural to urban was very negative in Habitat-I and it started to be relatively positive in Habitat-II but is still the position in Habitat-II was to stop migrations.If you read carefully documents it was the idea that urbanization should be controlled and stopped.

I think that a fundamental achievement and a change to Habitat-III is the notion that urbanization is impossible to stop, and should not be stopped, because it is bringing development, it is bringing prosperity and it is bringing democracy in much of the places, is bringing gender development, etc.

So that in my view is a fundamental change but what is happening today in the notion of migration with different scales, not only rural – urban but international migration, forced migration because of war or situations of war, the world is becoming again very pessimistic a bit about the positive aspect of migration as a transformative force for the world as it has been historically.

And I think more progressive forces need really to remind us that migration is a good thing, that cities should be hosting and should be organizing conditions to be responding to this but the agenda in this thing in my view is still a bit unclear.

Another thing, Habitat-II made some connection between environment and urbanization. But it was not clear enough. Still urbanization was a culprit, was a danger, was a threat to the environment.

Today I think, this equation has changed little bit and what we can see, is that urbanization when is well planned, well organized, well managed, can be a fundamental tool for environment protection and sustainability.

I think this is also a positive change that has come in these years and one where I’m a bit worried in this situation is a sort of regression in the notion of how the New Urban Agenda is going to be monitored how is it going to be reported, who is going to be responsible for that. The discussions today in Quito are still unfolding in that area but in my view much more clear messages of international and local and national accountability and transparency should be integrated into this agenda.

I believe there it is also a positive change if the agenda concludes as we are considering because in Habitat-II the agenda was all-encompassing there were 200 and something goals and very sectoral oriented covering all dimensions but in this sectoriality, difficult to understand that the city was working as a whole, was an integrated system.

I think a fundamental change for Habitat-III, is the notion that the best way to deal with sustainability is through a city-wide approach, through a perspective of laws, of economy, of planning, that looks at the whole city. And many of the sectoral things that were entry points in Habitat-II today will be integrated into these more holistic views and the responses will be a part of that.

To give you an example, for instance, Habitat-II will devote specific attention that itself at the time at itself today to issue like poverty or slums but today Habitat-III is telling us that the responses to slums perhaps are not only in slum improvement per se, although it is important but in some related notions of how to control, how to respond to the whole city perspective – in terms of better redistribution of wealth, of opportunities, better management of the land, better creation of local economic activities for slum dwellers, etc.

So this change I think is also extremely important. And I’ll would consider that the New Urban Agenda is bringing also a very interesting dimension in the notion that this space could be a limit, could be an obstacle, could be an agent for change.

For instance we have studied that if you take inequalities in cities and you reduce economic inequalities in one specific neighborhood, you reduce some forms of access to services inequalities or inequalities in the provision of public goods, the last reduct, the last element to change is the space itself. The space is a concentrator of inequalities in itself, so it can be reversed and used for change for the whole city and the New Urban Agenda somehow is looking at this positive aspects.

To recall that Prepcom 3[3] – Surabaya was a very important political discussion and technical, in which some elements that we wanted as UN-Habitat international community, academicians and people worried with the fate of the New Urban Agenda. But some member states thought that monitoring, reporting and all associated with this that has to do with who is responsible for what, and who is accountable and under which forums and mechanism for reporting.

Some forces managed to convince at that time member-states and many of the issues related to monitoring and reporting were diluted. The document at the time was weak and worrisome because it was giving a free hand as the document said, on a voluntary basis.

Something that the UN-Habitat, obviously we oppose because we believe that September 2016 we are discussing with governments that it should be brought to the document. The fundamental issue that the reporting, as it is for instance in the Paris agreement, reporting is mandatory every five years. It is a serious issue in which you create conditions to make sure that this journey that we are starting for the next 20 years will have benchmarks, and will be and it will be possible to know in these benchmarks that we are going in the correct or not correct direction.

And in that case who can be held accountable for that and in our view and we hope that this is going to change not only in terms of a document but a serious form of embracing reporting and monitoring in a way that if I don’t do it, you can knock on my door as civil society or as an international society, in terms of either development agencies – UN and others to say that you are not doing your work and something should be changed.

For that there are two or three fundamental ingredients. One is that the New Urban Agenda and SDGs and particularly what we call Urban SDGs which are Goal-11 and other indicators of target with an urban component, they should not be considered as parallel agendas or isolated agendas, but UN-Habitat and other UN agencies and partners, we are working in bringing a connection of these two.

We are analyzing in which way some of the fundamental components of the New Urban Agenda dialogue with the SDG indicators and to establish frameworks and mechanisms of connection of these two. This is one ingredient of success fundamentally.

The second one is other international development agendas. Paris agreements. I mean Climate Change and other elements in which cities as the panel, as the eminent panel of Climate Change is telling us cities are playing a fundamental role in C02 emissions but also in the possible reduction of them. And in the control or vulnerabilities of populations affected by climate change conditions, all these elements that point to resilience that point to better forms of planning are telling us that we need to connect all these international development agendas in which the element, that is the vector for these connections are the cities themselves.

Local governments for sustainability

Agenda-21, the very first summit that brought together the theme of Environment and Development in Rio in 1992 was of course, part of a serious preparation period just before. Actual preparations already started by 1990 and that is the birth year of I.C.L.E.I[4]– Local Governments for Sustainability. At that time when nations embarked on preparing the negotiations it was felt that local governments could actually provide a good contribution to the discussion on Environment and Development, but there was no organization that particularly was dealing with sustainability issues.

That is why ICLEI was created in 1990 and then helped into the preparations of the summit and then ultimately of course as the outcome of the Rio summit, the Rio declaration foresees in a Chapter-28 which is about the Local Agenda 21 which we then have as a, as the organization ICLEI being, of course driving throughout the world, and I think in the meanwhile there are thousands of Local Agenda 21 or similar sustainability planning process that have been taken up by local governments, by the leaders, by citizens.

And so that is what we have been doing obviously, over the years the themes have been broadened and have even also been deepened. So today we are working with what we call 10 Agendas and I think the MDGs have been you know a driver for us to spread the thinking and the embracing of sustainability at the local level in particular in the Global South. But I’m very pleased that now with the SDGS that these are universal and not only you know looking Global south-wards but also Global north-wards. And it is even more important and great to see that there’s a standalone SDG-11 on resilient, safe and sustainable cities, and inclusive cities. So I think that is a real great achievement and this has been taken up by the Intergovernmental Conference and the United Nations General Assembly – it’s absolutely fantastic.

The Paris Agreement on Climate Change is an essential part of the overall sustainability agenda, we are also very pleased as ICLEI that we could contribute to finding that recognition and empowering of local and sub-national governments enshrined in the Paris text. It was not in the UNFCC convention nor in the Kyoto Protocol. So you know I think this is good because these are challenges that are so global, that are so large that all actors, all stakeholders that discussion; so it’s not only a governmental discussion nor only at national intergovernmental but also local and sub-national governments and then academia, the businesses, the youth, citizens, NGOs obviously- all of us can contribute to those challenges that are in front of us and therefore move ourselves also towards more global sustainability. The leadership in a number of Asian countries are doing fantastic, fantastic things – but the problems are also quite severe I mean if we just think air pollution in Beijing, for example.

So I think it is important to continue supporting and providing assistance, training, capacity building to all those good leaders to help them, to move further on their work.

I would think the SDGs as some kind of a contract between nations and the citizens at a global level of trying to advance ourselves to a better quality of life and a better planet and so in that sense the job is huge. I think one of the biggest challenges will be to find that new governance and cooperation mechanism between these various actors – so I think that is what is going to be one of those issues that we will have to work hard on. I am confident because of the fact that at least common understanding on how we want to move forward, I’m confident that also with the other actors we can find that trust and that co-operation but secondly I think there are a couple of issues that we indeed have to work on very, very fast and this has to do with of course the ways of how we consume our energy, I mean can we have a discussion about fossil fuel, we have to decarbonize; that is absolutely  essential but also how we you know build our infrastructure.

This is a long-lasting so can we have a discussion about how can we actually achieve a real change, a drastic transformation? Can we have you know a discussion about our buildings producing energy rather than consuming energy? Things like that.

We need to construct and/or provide infrastructure and opportunities for the next 40 years as what we have done in the last 4,000 years. If you just take the perspective that 3.5 billion people will live in urban areas again. So this is an enormous amount of funding and financing that is required. Obviously this cannot be financed just via the multi-lateral development banks and other mechanisms we have in place, we have to look locally- how can we raise those funds.

I think it is, it’s definitely necessary to try to see how can other cities, other local governments learn from those that have already on that path and how can we actually raise those funds locally and therefore, help ourselves.

You have to have good capacities to be able to analyze well, the problem and therefore also having the data already. Secondly, then be able to address solutions making priorities around the solutions-so you need also to have the information what are the solutions, and then thirdly, you have actually to be able to understand your partner’s with whom you are going to implement those solutions.

So it’s the supplier’s side as well as a financing part of it and then actually you have then when you actually get there you have to maintain it and make sure that all your citizens are embracing that part of the development, or you know planning that the you wish to undertake.

Now if you then look into the other actors where we have this kind of institutions, organizations, platforms of dialogue that provide that stability I think then that kind of cooperation, mechanisms between those that are the convenors, the connectors between the individual maybe cities or subjects and provide that stability and then again create that trust amongst ourselves – I think that’s one way of moving forward for sure and scale it up basically because that I think the scaling up will be one of the biggest parts that we have to achieve now.

 

Pedro Pereira Leite

Researcher and professor. He had his PhD. on museology in 2011, with the title “Muss-amb-ike Homeland: The commitment on musicological process”, that was published in 2011. In 2012 he finishes a Post-PhD Research on "Biographical Glances: The intersubjectivity poetry on museology, at Lusófona University (Lisbon). Presently he is working in his Post PhD. Research about: “Global Heritages" with the aims to build a network on local cognizance and memory manager has a tool to build the will of action in 3 different communities, linked by past communed heritages.” He works at CES. He participates on different Research network, presented papers in national and international conferences, and had published books on research subjects.

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The inclusion of community knowdlege on territorial development