Arquivo de etiquetas: alterações climáticas

Antropoceno XLVIII – Resultados da Conferencia do Clima de Paris

Faz agora uma semana que a COP 21 chegou ao fim. Vários foram as vozes que se ouviram sobre os sucessos e fracassos da cimeira. Uma cimeira é sempre um momento de compromissos. E essa foi um dado relevante. O acordo atingido foi o acordo possível, melhor do que estava previsto do documento inicial.

COP21: O que foi acordado?

Pela primeira vez, todas as 195 Partes da Convenção Quadro das Nações Unidas sobre Mudança do Clima (UNFCCC): comprometeram-se a reduzir as emissões de CO2E (emissões de dióxido de carbono em unidades equivalentes.) a tomar medidas para reforçar a resiliência do planeta e combater as alterações climáticas.

Ao fim de duas semanas de debate, a Conferência sobre Mudança Climática das Nações Unidas, consegui um acordo em que todos as partes (os 195 países do mundo) se comprometeram a tomar medidas e dar continuidade aos esforços de limitar o aquecimento global do planeta nos 2 até 2100,  e a tomar medidas para reduzir até 1,5 º, tomando como referencia os valores anteriores à revolução industrial.

Acordo de Paris é um documento mais ambicioso porque cobre todas a áreas identificadas como cruciais para atingir esses objetivos, ultrapassando alguns impasses que se tinham verificado em conferencias anteriores.

Os principais resultados são:

  • Esforços de Mitigação: tomar medidas adequadas para reduzir de forma rápida as emissões de CO2 de forma a atingir o objetivos de contenção do aquecimento global
  • Compromisso em relação a um sistema transparente de ações aplicada a nível global e nacional
  • Compromissos de Adaptação através do reforço da capacidade dos países em lidar com os impactos climáticos
  • Compromisso em relação à limitação e mitigação de perdas e danos através do fortalecimento de medidas de apoio e de gerar capacidade dos paíse recuperarem dos impactos das alterações climáticas
  • Compromisso com um sistema de suporte, onde se inclui um fundo de financiamento para ajudar os países a construir sistemas de energia limpos e promover a resilencia das infraestruturas

O acordo Paris: isso é suficiente?

Apesar dos sucessos anteriores, o acordo é apenas o começo de uma jornada difícil que exige responsabilidade, solidariedade e apoio aos países e comunidades mais vulneráveis. As intenções anunciadas na transição energética vão enfrentar muitas barreiras por parte de paíse e empresas produtores de petróleo. Enquanto as fontes de energia fóssil forem baratas e acessíveis, será muito difícil evitar que elas sejam exploradas e comercializadas.

O limite de atingir as 55 gigatoneladas de emissões até 2025 e 2030, a partir do somatório das emissões nacionais, parece ser um valor insuficiente para conter o efeito de estufade  e um sistemas que se prevê que possa ter várias fragilidades. Será provavelmente necessário no futuro adotar medidas para reduzir ainda mais as emissões de CO2

A Redução das emissões de carbono são estabelecidas como com base em Indicadores de emissão de Carbono fixados a partir dos objetivos de ação em cada parceiro. Se as metas estabelecidas forem interiores aos índices esperado via gerar problemas no total de emissões. Cada país concordou em diminuir a procura de fontes fósseis e limitar as suas emissões. Mas ao mesmo tempo sabemos que essa limitação está condicionada pelo necessidade de cada país de manter um determinado nível de crescimento económico. Fatores que funcionarão em conjunto nas tomadas de decisão.

Alguns dos INDCs para os Países Menos Desenvolvidos (PMD) têm componentes fortes de adaptação de mitigação porque as suas emissões são baixas. Estes países estão dependentes das ajudas dos países desenvolvidos, ajudas financeiras e tecnológicas, para implementar as respectivas medidas. Se essas ajudas não ocorrerem, esses países não poderão implementar as suas medidas.

O acordo está dependente das vontades das partes em aplicar os planos climáticos nacionais. São medidas tomadas de forma voluntária. A informação será prestada pelos próprios países e e não estão previstos mecanismos acompanhar ou controlar essas medidas, nem tão pouco existem processos de censura ou repreensão. O acordo prevê um comité de acompanhamento formado por especialistas, com o objectivo de facilitar a aplicação da convenção, em processos transparentes, não contraditórios e não punitivos. A aplicação do Acordo é voluntário e não haverá sanções para quem não cumprir os objetivos que eles próprios estabelecem.

A questão do financiamento

A questão do financiamento do fundo é um dos pontos que suscita alguma controvérsia. Por exemplo, os países desenvolvidos colocam algumas condicionantes para a transferência de tecnologias e ao seu financiamento, bem como à capacitação dos países menos desenvolvidos

Os 100 mil milhões de U$. para prover o fundo do clima até 2020, provenientes sobretudo dos países desenvolvidos, será também uma incerteza. A cooperação é referida como voluntários, o que poderá vir a condicionar as doações em situações de crise económica e financeira.

A questão dos Prazos e objetivos

Uma das questões mais controversas do acordo é a ausência dum objectivo preciso para inverter a tendência de aquecimento global. Se bem que esteja referido o objectivo global de contenção no limite de 1,5 º, a partir de 2050; sabendo-se que a tendência tem sido de crescimento, ao mesmo tempo que não há, no imediato, alternativas tecnológicas adequadas a inversão desse aquecimento, considera-se que teria sido necessário definir uma meta quer estabelecesse a inversão dessa tendência, para que a monitorização do processo possa ser eficiente.

A questão do financiamento do Fundo Global também não está clara ao definir quem paga, nem como em que condições esse fundo será usado.

Fronteiras XIII – Precautionary Principle

Um princípio definido pela UNESCO.

“No actual ambiente de intensa investigação científica e rápido desenvolvimento tecnológico, de diferentes modos de aplicação dos novos conhecimentos e das inovações constantemente surgem, apresenta-se cada via mais novas possibilidades de desafios. Estamos a beneficiar do maior leque de opções que o progresso nos traz. Com mais escolha temos também mais responsabilidades.

Consciente de nosso papel como curadores do nosso mundo, e em nome das gerações futuras, temos o dever de tomar precauções para o exercício das nossas opções. Esta necessidade de proceder de forma ética é expresso pelos debates sobre o princípio da precaução.

O conceito da precaução não é novo e a compreensão deste princípio, com o tempo, passou a significar coisas diferentes para pessoas diferentes e a sua aplicação, do princípio da precaução, mostra-se controverso na ocasião.

Nascido nas ciências ambientais, o princípio da precaução, tem vindo a amadurecer como um princípio ético com um alcança mais vasto. O valor do princípio da precaução deverá ser visto como um guia de fomações de políticas.

O mandato da UNESCO no campo da ética, da ciência e da tecnologia, leva-a a desempenhar um papel relevante na formulação do princípio da precação para que cada Estado-Membro o possa usar corretamente na suas avaliações sobre a ética da ciência e da tecnologia nas escolhas do presente.

Em conformidade com o mandato recebido dos Estados-Membros (31 C / 5), UNESCO, juntamente com o seu órgão consultivo, a Comissão Mundial sobre a Ética do Conhecimento Científico e Tecnologia (COMEST), reuniu um grupo de peritos para propor uma definição clara do princípio da precaução e fornecer esclarecimentos sobre as possíveis utilizações deste princípio, com o objetivo de oferecer uma plataforma ética para garantir a gestão adequada do risco e informações corretas para os formuladores de políticas públicas e para, tendo em conta o impacto das novas tecnologias.

Temos o prazer de apresentar este relatório de grupo de peritos da COMEST no princípio da precaução, que fornece os Estados-Membros com uma base sólida para a discussão e clarifi es o princípio de uma forma pragmática. Esta é parte de um esforço mais amplo UNESCO está fazendo para promover a capacidade e aumentar a consciência no campo da ética da ciência e da tecnologia. Queremos agradecer o grupo de peritos para trazer a esta tarefa o seu intelecto, entusiasmo e esforço, o que deu origem a este trabalho de qualidade.”

 

Social Science Perspectives on Climate Change

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Social Science Perspectives on Climate Change Edited by David Canter© 2016  – Routledge, 124 pages

Although it is generally accepted that the climate is changing for the worse and that human activities are a major contributing factor in that change, there is still only marginal response to the challenge posed by climate change. The reasons behind this limited response are becoming clearer through the recognition that climate change is not just a set of physical science facts, but it is also part of a series of complex social processes. Consequently, this book is important in providing social science perspectives on a range of attempts to adjust human activity to reduce its environmental impact. These attempts vary from the changing of the dress code in Japanese offices to the creation of zero-carbon, gated communities in Bangalore, India. Taken together, the contributions to this book provide timely insights into the complexities of saving the planet through human endeavour. This book was originally published as a special issue of Contemporary Social Science.

The Future of Heritage as Climates Change

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Loss, Adaptation and Creativity

Edited by David Harvey, Jim Perry

© 2015 – Routledge

Climate change is a critical issue for heritage studies. Sites, objects and ways of life all are coming under threat, requiring alternative management, or requiring specific climate change adaptation. Heritage is key to interpreting the societal significance of climate change; notions (and images) of the past are crucial to our understanding of the present, and are used to prompt actions that help society define and achieve a specific and desired future.

Relatively little attention has been paid to the critical intersections between heritage and climate change.The Future of Heritage as Climates Change frames the intellectual context within which heritage and climate change can be examined, presenting cases and sub-fields in which the heritage-climate change nexus is being examined and provides synthetic analyses through five overarching themes:

  • The heritage of change among coastal communities: liminality and the politics of engagement
  • Dwelling materials: processes and possibilities;
  • Environmental heritage: meanings of the past – prospects for the future;
  • Blurring the boundaries of nature and culture: the politics of anticipation;
  • Climate change and heritage practice: adaptation and resilience.

The Future of Heritage as Climates Change provides scholars, managers, policy makers and students with a much needed examination of heritage and climate change to help make critical decisions in the next several decades.

Towards a New Climate Agreement Based on 2-Degrees Celsius V

Achieving Large Global Goals 

We are in a challenge unique in history, unprecedented, to bring a global scale, environmental threat under control. And unfortunately for the reasons that I ticked off earlier, the eight extraordinary features of this challenge, this is one of the toughest challenges that humanity has faced as a peacetime challenge. So we have our work cut out for us.

Some people are pessimistic, are cynical, believe that the vested interests will win, that the short-sightedness is inevitable, that politics can’t agree on anything much less something as complicated as this. Or that it’s humanity’s fate to have to suffer massive climate derangement cause we don’t pay attention and we don’t take care of ourselves. I think we need not believe any of that kind of pessimism or cynicism. And we do need to take heart, again, as students of history in the fact that good things happen. Big changes do take place. Social movements can be successful in creating very large-scale, indeed global, very positive change. And this is really the topic that I’d like to explore with you in this final chapter.

1052How we can help to bring about large-scale social change, that is the change to help make the world safe, to respect the planetary boundaries, to achieve sustainable development, generally and specifically to honor the 2-degree Celsius limit as a limit of safety, a guardrail for the world environment? To do that the basic lesson of social change is that not only are governments needed at the table, businesses needed at the table, academics, scientists, experts needed at the table, we as global citizens are also needed at the table.

Large-scale social change occurs ultimately through large-scale social movements. It’s the public, it’s civil society that raises its voice and says, we need to be heard because it’s our safety, it’s our children’s safety, it’s the safety of future generations that we care about that need respect and need attention now. These social movements often start with small groups of very dedicated, committed and very brave people, but they do tap into a moral spirit widely shared. They tap into a knowledge base that can be demonstrated and proved and by being based on fact as well as based on ethical values, widely shared, they can turn into very large-scale social change.

I think about some of the most important of these movements in the last couple of centuries. Think about the fight about ending slavery. Slavery was pervasive. It was the norm at the end of the 18th Century.  A small group of committed activists in Britain at what was becoming the height of the British Empire, said, this is morally wrong, abominable. We need to end the…first the trafficking and then the presence of slavery in the British Empire. It may seem obvious to us, how could anybody defend slavery, but slavery was strongly defended within England itself, of course with the huge slave industry and in other parts of the world. But Wilberforce and Clarkson and others persisted over the course of decades. And quite astoundingly and wonderfully the moral case became the dominant social reality and then the political reality. And slavery was ended in the British empire in 1833. It took a war in the United States to end slavery. Step by step slavery was seen as the abomination that it was.

And by the end of the 19th Century in most places, but still not in every place today, slavery was eliminated. But this is an example of how a moral principle can finally turn into a political inevitability. Ending colonial rule was seen as something impossible to achieve when Gandhi began his campaign in India in the early 20th Century. And by the end of the century it was again, a near inevitability. Not complete, not total by any means, but the mindset, the ideas about what is right and wrong about one people politically dominating another had changed fundamentally in the course of the 20th Century.

The civil rights movement and the anti-apartheid movement similarly required the bravery and genius of a Martin Luther King, Jr. and a Nelson Mandela, but those ideas became widespread ideas. And when one looks at social attitudes today in places that were virulently racist a generation or two generations ago, social attitudes also do change over time.1053

And now we’re in a battle for women’s rights, for the freedom of sexual orientation, new social mores that come through brave people saying, this is right, this is our moral stake in this, this is something which society more generally needs to embrace. And I think the evidence is that these magnificent and large-scale social changes, starting with very brave, small groups of people but through persistence finally spreading through society can fundamentally change the direction of the world as a whole.

In the last 14 years I’ve been very privileged to be a part of what many of you are also part of and that is the fight to end extreme poverty. The idea that extreme poverty is an anachronism, absolutely needs through directed efforts brought to a close of human history is an idea that was adopted by world leaders at the beginning of the new millennium in the Millennium Development Goals. They have not ended extreme poverty by any means but they have played their role and extreme poverty is coming down as a proportion of the world’s population and in the new phase that will follow the Millennium Development Goals, it’s within reach for governments to say, we can end extreme poverty. The idea is there, the progress is there, the momentum is there and the moral commitment is increasingly taking hold around the world.

Climate change and sustainable development more generally is another case where we need a worldwide reorientation of what we do, how we live, and the morals with which we live. And it was interesting and not just interesting, I would say notable and very important that when the world leaders came together on the 20th anniversary of the Earth Summit, as I described earlier, at the Rio+20 summit in June, 2012 in Rio de Janeiro. At that point, they looked at the Millennium Development Goals and said, that is social action that’s working, we have treaties, we have law, we have negotiations but they’re not working as they need to, we need to look at the lessons of the Millennium Development Goals. In other words, we need to bring society to the table of sustainable development.1051

And in the outcome document of Rio+20, the conferees made a very valuable contribution and I want to read it. You see it here on the screen. We recognize that the development of goals could also be useful for pursuing focused and coherent action on sustainable development.

These goals should address and incorporate in a balanced way all three dimensions of sustainable development and their inter-linkages. By that they mean, economic, social and environmental. We’ll also underscore that STGs should be action oriented, concise and easy to communicate, limited in number, aspirational, global in nature and universally applicable to all countries while taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities.

We are in that sense part of a new social movement. The public is coming to the table, the sustainable development goals of which one headline goal will be a safe global climate, gives us the opportunity to help create a worldwide public understanding and public demand for climate safety and for the other features of sustainable development. It’s in that context that the DDPP, the Deep Decarbonization Pathway Project arose, because Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said in the aftermath of Rio+20, we need a global network of problem-solving. And he created the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, the SDSN.

And I’m very privileged to be the director of that. He created that network in order to bring together scientists, engineers, business leaders and civil society leaders, precisely for the kind of problem-solving in which we’re engaged. And the DDPP is a great flagship of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network. It’s an example of civil society, in this case experts from around the world, largely from academia and from other knowledge-based institutions, coming to the fore and saying, here is how this particular problem of deep decarbonization can be solved.

And we’ve learned a lot that we’ve been emphasizing through these lectures, through the DDPP process. We’ve learned a lot about problem-solving itself because we’ve had to solve the problem of how to make our process work, which is not an easy…easy process by any means to actually find these pathways in a constructive manner that can help the world move towards a meaningful climate agreement.

We’ve identified in the SDSN and in the DDPP some of the strategies for success in achieving big social goals. The first part of success is set goals. This I think is absolutely fundamental, because without the goal we have no direction. With a goal, stay below the 2-degrees Celsius in order to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system, we have goal. We have something we can hold onto. And as President John F. Kennedy said about setting goals, “By defining our goal more clearly, by helping it seem more manageable and less remote we can help all people to see it, to draw hope from it, and to move irresistibly toward it.” So not only do we need goals but we have to define the goals more clearly, make them seem more manageable as we hope the DDPP process is doing. And specifically to make the goals seem more manageable we have to identify pathways o achieving those goals.

What we have called backcasting. Look at 2050, where we need to be and ask, how are we going to get there from where we are today in 2014? We need R&D roadmaps, a point that we’ve emphasized to overcome existing hurdles. We’re going to need to demonstrate successes of some of these technologies. We’re going to need to build momentum of civil society.

And then rapid scale up, mass public education and of course, deepening the political and the institutional framework by reaching meaningful agreements in COP21 and similar kinds of frameworks in other areas. It’s obviously a huge undertaking, but sustainable development defines the most important agenda of our generation. Earlier generations faced their specific challenges, ours is the challenge of a very crowded planet, pressing against planetary boundaries, threatening survival itself of millions of species, the well-being, the survival of humanity itself. And so we must take on this challenge.

And we must take heart from the success of earlier vast social change actions as I’ve noted. It may see awfully hard to accomplish this. Some of the technological challenges seem absolutely daunting. Can you really take the core of the world energy system and within 25 or 30 years change it to a low carbon energy system? The answer, the evidence says, is yes, if we really work at it. If we direct our attention and direct our technological change in the needed area.1054

As I’ve said, I was inspired in my youth by the moon shot. By President John F. Kennedy standing in Congress and saying early in 1961 that he recommends that the United States accept the challenge of putting a man safely to the moon and bringing him back safely to earth by the end of the decade. And what’s absolutely interesting about that among so many other things is that when President Kennedy made that call to action, there was no plan to do it. He wasn’t referring to the accepted engineering reports that said exactly what the blueprint is. It took NASA more than a year to come up with the, the basic ideas and then it took brainstorming and problem-solving and heroics and brilliant engineering, a lot of resources and a major sustained commitment through the entire process. In 1962, in talking about this attempt to go to the moon, President Kennedy said something that I believe resonates today in the spirit of the challenge that we face in climate change and in all of this deep systems transformation and technological change that we’re going to need to undertake, he was talking to a public that was asking, is this too hard, can we do it? And President Kennedy said, “We choose to go to the moon.” We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard.

Because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills. Because that challenge is one that we’re willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone and one we intend to win, and the others too. And I can tell you as he spoke at Rice University in a vast open stadium that day, the applause were phenomenal, because the public rallied to this.

They said, this is, this is something we can do. This is a challenge we are willing to accept. Fundamentally we need the world around the table. We need the experts. We need the engineers. We need the governments. And we need us as civil society. And we need to do this at a time that is extraordinarily difficult, because we’re talking about climate change at a time where we’re also facing a lot of war, a lot of conflict, a lot of battles that are not only devastating in and of themselves but taking up the energy, taking up our attention, turning us away from what really counts for our long-term survival.

And so fundamentally we are going to have to find a way to cooperate on what is important, find a way to turn away from the violence and the war and find a way to cooperate peacefully for decades to come. And as I close the course I want to close one more time with President Kennedy who pursued peace in 1963 and very much with a vision that by doing so we could turn to science and to the arts and to cooperation and to public health and to other goals. And he faced a big challenge then. The world was deeply divided then as it is now. And he had to urge Americans and the world about the capacity to cooperate.

So I want to close with my favorite lines of President Kennedy about cooperation itself, but you’ll see that they really resonate when it comes to our specific challenges, fifty years later. President Kennedy said, “So let us not be blind to our differences, but let us also direct attention to our common interests and to the means by which those differences can be resolved. And if we cannot end now our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. For in the final analysis, our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet, we all breathe the same air, we all cherish our children’s futures and we are all mortal.” Thank you for being in the class. I look forward to being together with you in the next semester.

Towards a New Climate Agreement Based on 2-Degrees Celsius IV

Can Everybody Win? Should Everybody Win?

We’re discussing in this lecture the structure, the shape of COP21; of the agreement and the premise of a negotiation in general as I’ve emphasized is a Pareto improvement, that the participants in the negotiation come out of the negotiation feeling that they’re better off than they were in the business as usual trajectory and the question that

I’d like to ask is can everybody really win in a climate agreement and an important second question is should everybody win? It all depends I suppose on one’s perspective. I’ve emphasized repeatedly now that there are many different divisions at the negotiating table.1041

There are the divisions of the rich and the poor countries. There are the divisions of the fossil rich and the fossil poor countries. There are divisions between producers of the fossil fuels and the consumers of the fossil fuels, not as countries but as players in the market, and here I’m thinking about the private companies, the big oil companies Exxon Mobil or Chevron or BP and others versus the consumers on the other side. Not only the consumers of their products but people who will then experience the results of climate change.

And another division which I’ve emphasized although only briefly is the different perspectives of the present and the future generations. Now here we have a little bit of an advantage. Only the present generation is present right now. The future generations don’t get their direct say, but they do have a strong interest. They’re not really at the table except through us, except through our logic, our moral commitments, our cultural imperatives, but we need to understand that future generations really are at the table.

They have interests and the question is, are they winners in this process? Under business as usual, they’re surely losers but how can both the present and the future generations be winners in the process? Well, let me come back one more time to this basic diagram that I introduced earlier where on the horizontal axis we had the income of one group of countries and on the vertical axis the income or the well-being of a second group and I’m imagining that these two groups are negotiating with each other for an agreement starting from inside the potential well-being line at business as usual and trying to reach the cooperative point.

Now in this final use of this curve I’m using the country one grouping to be the oil exporters. Countries like the Gulf states, Venezuela, Canada, Australia, which are significant exporters of fossil fuels. And I’m using in this case on the vertical axis the oil importing or the fossil fuel importing countries that are buying these carbon rich energy supplies from the first group of countries. And as usual, both groups are at the bargaining table and in principle one could have a Pareto improving outcome in which both the oil exporters and the oil importing countries are better off. But think about the ways that the policy choices are typically discussed.

Well, we’ve not focused in this course on the details of policy choices of how to move to the low carbon economy. At this point emphasizing mostly how does one achieve a low-carbon economy.

We know that to move from coal fire power plants to wind and solar power or to move from internal combustion automobiles to more expensive electric vehicles something has to be done through regulation or through emissions permits or through carbon taxation to tilt the balance in the marketplace towards the lower carbon option. And remember of course that the whole theory of this is that we should be willing to spend a bit more of our resources than we’re now spending on the carbon rich infrastructure to spend it on a low carbon infrastructure because we’re going to come out way ahead in the long term by avoiding climate disaster and so the idea is that while the alternatives right now may look more expensive when you add in the social cost of carbon to the market cost of carbon then these alternatives either are or through research and development could be made to be the best cost alternative.

But how do you tilt the consumers or the market behavior in that direction. You may regulate, no more coal fired power plants without carbon capture and sequestration. No more internal combustion engines after 2030. You can only buy light duty vehicles that are…have zero tailpipe emissions. That’s one way to do it. And the other way we know is to tilt the market prices through corrective pricing. For example through a carbon tax that’s levied on the use of coal, oil and gas. And suddenly wind and solar power and electric vehicles look like the better deal.

Suppose we go that second option which has been the preferred option in the European Union for example to use a tradable permit system. We know that the implication of that kind of policy or not an equivalent but closely related policy of putting on a carbon tax is to raise the price of carbon fuels to the consumer but by driving down demand for those carbon fuels to lower the price received by the producers.

So the typical strategy right now not necessarily wrong in any way but the typical strategy is let’s push demand away from coal, oil and gas by creating a price wedge between what the consumers pay, a high price, and what the producers receive, a lower price and that will move the economy to a safer, lower emitting, 2-degree C limit kind of economy of our pathways.

All fine and good; absolutely right from a climate point of view but what I’m illustrating here is one absolutely plausible outcome that the world thereby moves to a higher aggregate level of well-being by avoiding climate disaster but it does so with a big improvement of the oil importing countries because they not only have a safer climate but they now pay a lower market price, not as consumers but the price that is actually net of tax paid to the oil exporters. They get a double benefit.

Whereas the oil exporting countries, say Saudi Arabia or Australia or Canada would face a lower world market price because demand for their products from other countries has gone down. Yes, they’re compensated by a safer climate, but maybe they’ve taken a big hit in their revenues and the way that I’ve drawn it here is that instead of reaching a Pareto improving outcome, that is along an arrow that goes from the southwest to the northeast, maybe the arrow goes to the northwest, that the oil importers are way better off but the oil exporters while living now in a safer climate also have seen their market really, really cut sharply and therefore they would say that’s not a mutually beneficial outcome, that’s just a punishment of the oil countries.

Now what could be done? What could be done for example would be a transfer of income. Let’s say that the oil importers impose a carbon tax and that has the effect of shifting us to a safe energy system but the losers are the oil exporters and the oil importing countries that have collected this tax on oil use could transfer some of the revenues to the oil exporters.

That probably would seem a little bit shocking to a lot of people. Indeed, when I once proposed it they said you’re heretical. How dare you give money to the oil exporters, they’re damaging the world. We’re not going to pay for them, we’re not going to compensate them. I mention this to raise the point. Can everybody benefit from an agreement? Should everybody benefit from an agreement?

Should is on the basis of principle, ethics, morals, legal judgment, responsibility, can is more of an economist’s question. I can tell you it’s possible to compensate oil exporters, even oil companies for a loss of their market income that may come from putting on a carbon tax. The should is another question. Is it really true that every party to the negotiation should walk away feeling better off? Maybe some of the oil exporters should walk away a bit unhappy that well, there goes our market, only compensated by the fact the climate will be safer and they were the polluters in the first place. My point is that there are different standards of outcome.

You might say a Pareto improving outcome is what we’re after. You might say no, no, polluter pays, I’m not interested in the polluter being compensated in any way. They’re both absolutely pragmatic and sensible standards. They contradict each other. And from a practical negotiating point of view it’s complicated. Because it could be that the oil exporting countries become a blocking coalition to say well, these negotiations are all fine and good in saving the climate and saving the world along with it, but why should we be the big losers in all of this? We’ll stop that until we’re compensated.

This is for us to discuss and debate in the global online negotiations next semester. This is for the world to discuss and debate. But as a practical matter, let me make a point. The oil exporting interests have been a blocking coalition in practice. Maybe not in the literal way that I’ve just described it, but there’s no doubt that the resistance to strong climate action has been greater among the net fossil fuel exporting countries than it has been among the net fossil fuel importing countries.

By and large, with exceptions within the European Union, most of the European Union is a net fossil fuel importing region and it’s also a region experiencing a lot of climate devastation. On both counts, the European Union is the world leader in saying we must take climate action. But in other parts of the world where countries are fuel exporters, for instance Canada and Australia, the politics is much, much less interested, let’s put it that way, in a climate agreement because the real weight of the politics is powerful interests of the fossil fuel industry who are saying why should we bear that cost?

I’d say the same is certainly true in the case of Russia. A massive fossil fuel exporter and so far not so interested in a strong, low-carbon climate deal, perhaps because of the specific interests involved.

And so it’s worth us to ask the question who are these big fossil fuel entities, wh1042at kind of role do they play in the negotiations, are they a blocking coalition, what kind of sharing of the costs and benefits would be a reasonable approach to reaching a full deal and I just want to share with you a few tables showing how concentrated in fact the fossil fuel resources are.

Coal, for example, is so concentrated that five countries alone have about three-quarters of the total world’s coal supply, the U.S., Russia, China, Australia and India. And you can imagine within each of those five countries there are very, very powerful lobbies, politically influential that say don’t go there to a low-carbon agreement.

On the next graph, I show the oil reserves. Same story, actually.1043 If I take groupings of countries, the five big groupings constitute in fact the three-quarters of the total proved oil reserves. These are the Gulf countries, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), that’s Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and neighbors, it’s Venezuela with its vast oil and unconventional, both conventional and unconventional oil reserves, it’s Canada with its massive unconventional heavy oil, the oil sands of Alberta, it’s Iran and Iraq. And these countries obviously also have very, very strong interests in the market price and the future use of petroleum.

And if I turn to the next of the three resources, natural gas reserves, once again there is tremendous concentration of the proved reserves f natural gas. A1044gain, the Arabian peninsula is so central to this story of course, next comes Iran, Russia with its vast natural gas deposits, Turkmenistan and Venezuela. Combined these five countries, the top five holders of natural gas reserves, account for two-thirds of the total reserves. So we see that this is going to be complicated, these negotiations, and there is a question about what these countries will demand, that’s perhaps more evident.

What they might receive, what they should expect on a practical and on an ethical basis in a worldwide transition to a low carbon economy. One thing we can say for sure, and I would like to point it out to all of the oil countries and oil exporting countries and companies, if carbon capture and sequestration works, then the space that is opened up in the carbon budget is expanded and this is why all of the fossil fuel producers have an enormous stake in proving and from their point of view demonstrating if it’s right, the feasibility of large scale carbon capture and sequestration.

And it’s why that group of countries and the companies that I’m going to introduce at this moment also should be major financiers of the testing, the research, the development, the demonstration and if successful the diffusion of carbon capture and sequestration. Now I’ve talked about the oil reserves and production in terms of countries but of course there’s some very, very major players in the world. Those are big oil companies. Some are privately owned, others are state owned and they are extraordinarily powerful actors in the world scene. They’re among the major largest countries it’s almost right because of their scale, but companies in the world and they are absolutely in my opinion the most powerful political lobby in the world.

They’re an enormously successful industry. Massive in scale, massive in wealth, massive in technological capacity, massive in determination for more than 100 years the oil companies have basically gone anywhere to the most remote places to the…to Siberia, to the middle of rain forests, to absolutely difficult terrain to the deep oceans to extract oil and sell it and they’ve made vast fortunes doing it but one has to marvel at the technological might and fortitude of this industry.

But when you look at the bottom line, the bottom line is absolutely amazing.1045 Fortune 500 has its list of the top companies in the world measured by revenue and take a look at the top ten. Wow. Of the top ten, number one, number three, number four, number five, number six, number ten are oil companies. Extraordinary. And number seven is the power distribution company of China, so you have Royal Dutch Shell, Exxon Mobil, Sinopec, China National Petroleum Corporation, British Petroleum, the State Grid Corporation of China, and Total. Giants in the world, the biggest companies in the world. Seven of the ten Fortune 500 companies are in the oil sector.

They have a voice, believe me. Two of the remainder…remaining countries…there I go again…two of the remaining three companies in this top ten list are automobile companies. Major users of petroleum. We have number eight, Toyota, and number nine, Volkswagen. It’s fair to say that nine of the ten companies in the top ten of the Fortune 500 are therefore basically in the petroleum sector and it’s not surprising how powerful this sector has been and continues to be. It has to be at the table in my view in these negotiations, it absolutely has to put its vast financial might into the research and development of carbon capture and sequestration because that is ultimately its long term license to operate.

The tenth remaining company on this list is Walmart a retail giant of phenomenal reach. It’s interesting that Walmart has been pursuing a strategy of trying to press tremendous energy efficiency through its supply chains and it’s been involved very much in…in trying to bring its supply chains in agriculture as well and there as a consumer facing company where consumers are saying what are you doing for the environment? Walmart perhaps feels that more directly than the big oil giants. Here is a…an undeniable story and reality that we absolutely need to face and to understand in the coming months of negotiation. We’re talking about the core of the world economy when we talk about the energy system. We’re talking about the very biggest companies in the whole world.

We’re talking about major countries that have strong national interests, reasons of state and a massive part of their economies involved in energy production and in the export or import of primary energy resources. In other words, the stakes are very high if the logic is of finding a way to create an agreement in which there is widespread benefit shared in a way that is…that enables us to get to that agreement, we’re going to have to face the realities of this concentration of fossil fuel resources and fossil fuel economic and political power in the coming months.

Towards a New Climate Agreement Based on 2-Degrees Celsius III

Climate Financing

I want to say some words about a very complicated and unsolved and unsettled area: climate finance. This is a complicated topic because it covers a tremendous range of issues, but involves broadly speaking the question of how the world both individually as governments and collectively through international organizations and institutions and through market forces internally within a country and internationally will finance the transition to a low-carbon world economy and also will finance other parts of the climate challenge including adaptation to ongoing climate change.

There are many categories of need and many issues about how this financing can be allocated, who’s to pay, who would be the recipients, what are the terms of the financing?

There are many kinds of financial instruments that might be considered and there are aspects of financial regulation as well. All of this points to the underlying fact that the category of climate finance is a big one and it means a lot of things and a lot of different things to a lot of different groups.

I want to sort out some key aspects of the climate finance issue, but don’t pretend in any way to find a clear bottom line because as of now there are still too many issues in play and not yet the clarity of either concept or magnitude of financing that will be needed for the whole transition process. Well what are the kinds of areas that need financing when we consider the transformation to a low-carbon economy and when we consider life in the midst of anthropogenic climate change?

The first category is the core financing of our energy-related infrastructure. This is the biggest single item of finance. It is a multi-trillion dollar amount of financing each year. Remember that we are in a world economy of nearly a $100 trillion per annum at this point. And the economy globally continues to grow at around three to four percentage points per year, meaning that it doubles roughly every twenty years. Maybe by 2035 or 2040 it will be at a scale of $200 trillion.

Typically, infrastructure would be a few percentage points of that. That means the investments in power generation, in transmission, in roads, in rail, in airports, in port facilities and in other physical infrastructure, dams, levees, coastal protection, inland waterway infrastructure and so forth might total somewhere between three and five percent of the world economy.

So we’re talking about total investments on the order of roughly three to five trillion dollars a year. And that’s why when we think about climate finance, which does not include the totality of infrastructure, but certainly includes power generation, the transmission grid, the road and rail network which constitutes the core of the domestic transport, ports and airports, those are expensive and large amounts of investment. And in this sense, climate finance is a trillion, trillions of dollar a year activity.

Many questions are raised as to how this financing will get done, especially given the fact that we’re going to have to direct a lot of that financing towards investments that may be at a higher market cost than traditional investments, in other words, costs of power generation that may be more expensive apparently than investing in a coal fired power plant, but less expensive when we take into account the social cost of carbon.

And so to direct massive amounts of investment to sustainable low carbon infrastructure will require all of the normal means of financing, budgets of the government, state financial institutions, the private capital markets, the retained earnings of private companies that may be generating power or managing rail and so forth, plus new instruments of regulation and carbon pricing such as of course tradable emissions permits or a carbon tax.

But the basic idea is that this universe of trillions of dollars of infrastructure finance must continue, but change course under the pressures of regulation, carbon pricing, and other systematic parts of the deep Decarbonization pathway and be directed towards a low-carbon core infrastructure. This is one part of the overall climate finance puzzle. Some of the others of course are ways to pay for other categories of activities that we’ve been talking about at length.

Another part of the climate financing is the financing of the research, development, demonstration and diffusion of low carbon or zero carbon technologies. So this is another category, the RDD&D financing. Then there is a category of financing which is financing for infrastructure in part, but is directed towards the needs of the poorest countries.

And here the Green Climate Fund that has been established under the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change is under the agreements that have been reached by the parties to be a major instrument for financing infrastructure and climate adaptation of low-income countries. It is to be one of the main ways that a specific pledge of a $100 billion per year from high income countries for low income countries should be implemented. But the details of the role of the Green Climate Fund and how it will be financed, which countries will contribute, whether it will go to the market and how are still being debated and, and are as yet unresolved.

Then it’s been recognized under the Framework Convention that in addition to the financing of the new power sector or a new low-carbon transport there will have to be considerable financing for adaptation itself. Some of that is for the soft infrastructure of behavior and redesign of settlements ensuring that people are living outside of what will become new flood plains under changing climate conditions.

But also the hard infrastructure that protects low-lying areas such as The Netherlands, or New York City which are each implementing very large scale, tens of billions of dollars hard infrastructure. And I’ve just added a picture for you of many of the so-called Delta Works for this most famous of low-lying countries, The Netherlands, the low-lying lands of Europe, which has been battling the sea level for all of its existence, but as ocean’s levels rise and as storms become more intense, 1031The Netherlands, which is perhaps the world’s leader in the technology of adaptation to sea level pressures has, is now implementing a project of more than a hundred billion dollars over the coming decades to protect itself against the changing ocean conditions. This famous Delta Works program is cutting-edge technology. It includes dikes, dams, levees, storm surge barriers of tremendous innovation and creativity because the designers and engineers are always balancing the physical protection with the protection of the ecosystems as well.

Now in New York City, we don’t have Delta Works quite in the same way, but Manhattan and other parts of New York City are also low-lying coastal zones that experienced a tremendous flooding during Super Storm Sandy. And in response to that, the New York City government under former Mayor Bloomberg put forward a twenty billion dollar plan like Delta Works, just illustrated in part here with new flood walls and surge protection barriers and so forth, showing that the adaptation agenda is partly behavioral and it’s partly hard physical infrastructure and financing of adaptation is going to be also a very pricey item given of course the fact that the climate related hydro meteorological disasters are now claiming also massive, massive losses of infrastructure and not to mention lives per year.1032

This brings us to another category of funding, agreed, but still not designed for losses and damages, experienced especially by poor countries. We don’t have an adequate global insurance system against hydro-meteorological disasters.

The low-income countries demanded it, they got assent in COP19 in Warsaw. And such a financing of losses and damages is now on, on the table for design. We also need financing for more general ecosystem protection and resilience. And here the global environment facility, which was created in part under the Framework Convention and partly under the Convention on Biological Diversity plays the unique role in the official world of financing resilience and protection of natural ecosystems and also human managed ecosystems. Well I hope that the list makes clear how complex this topic is from hard physical infrastructure of power generation and transmission and roads and rail to ecosystem functioning, protection against storm surges, research and development, help for the poor and compensation for losses and damages. The climate finance agenda is obviously extraordinarily complex.

What does financing even mean in this context? Of course it means financial resources devoted to these challenges, but the nature of those instruments is also extraordinarily varied and heavily debated I might add. The rich countries have promised the poor countries a hundred billion dollars in finance by the year 2020. But what do they mean by that? Do they mean private sector financing? Do they mean foreign investment? Do they mean loans? Do they mean grants? There are many categories of finance and some require repayment, others are essentially transfers. And when it comes to something as significant as the hundred billion dollars promised by the rich to the poor countries, the answer is we don’t know because it hasn’t been negotiated yet.

And there are very, very different opinions about it. I mention here some of the categories of finance, hardly exhaustive. Of course grants mean direct transfers of money that don’t need to be paid back. Loans are moneys that require repayment. The interest rate on those loans can be below market at which, in which case these loans are called concessional loans, or they could be at market terms.

There are also ways to extend guarantees to an agent, could be a city government that wants to borrow on the market in order to build infrastructure. And an outside entity, say the World Bank or the African Development Bank or another government could say, we will guarantee the repayment of the loan so you can borrow that funding on preferred terms.

And there is neither a grant, nor a loan but a credit guarantee which may come to almost the same thing as a loan. There can be insurance protection against various kinds of risks. There can be liability protection where a government says you build the carbon capture and sequestration facility, we will bear any of the liability that results if there’s an accident, if there is leakage, if there is loss of life. If there’s some other industrial problem, we’ll bear the responsibility. This is a, a big issue for nuclear power also where often governments take the liability of nuclear power even though the power company itself is in the private sector.

There are specific instruments on a flow basis where governments may say, we’ll buy directly from you a renewable energy producer at a preferred price, a so-called feed-in tariff. This is another powerful instrument of financing, it’s using the public purse itself, not in handing out a loan or extending a grant, but in paying for a service. And government procurement of machinery or government procurement of infrastructure or government payment for energy services is also part of climate financing.1033

Project financing means to finance a complex project such as the grand Inga Falls that I discussed earlier where perhaps $50 or $60 billion dollars could produce a 40-megawatt, sorry, gigawatt facility in.of hydropower in Central Africa. And that kind of project financing is itself a very complex challenge with multiple kinds of financial instruments included within the single project and the money coming from all different kinds of partners.

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  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2014/09'>Setwmsroc2014l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2014/08'>A,oWaca2014l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2014/07'>Julwem2014l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2014/06'>Junwem2014l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2014/05'>Maiem2014l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2014/04'>Abrilm2014l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2014/03'>Marçem2014l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2014/02'>Fho cehoem2014l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2014/01'cJtndhoem2014l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2013/12'>Dezdmsroc2013l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2013/11'cNavemsroc2013l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2013/10'>Outusroc2013l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2013/09'>Setwmsroc2013l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2013/08'>A,oWaca2013l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2013/05'>Maiem2013l/li>
  • lreded s'http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/dttn/2013/04'>Abrilm2013l/li>
l/a idh>lr idhsid="ahg_o aud-8"to sns="tidgtt tidgtt_ahg_o aud">lh1 o sns="tidgtt-title">Etiqu pasl/h1>
luh t sns='wp-ahg-o aud'=aole='ln?t'>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/hjuda-ao-devecvolvpm nto"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245532 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-th=style="foea-eize: 8pt;h=acia-label="Ajuda aosD vecvolvpm nto (10rptons)">Ajuda aosD vecvolvpm ntol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/ha1teacens-o i ti0hs"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1521844 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-th=style="foea-eize: 20.153846153846pt;h=acia-label="ha1tea/a> Who i áamcaW (67rptons)">ha1tea/a> Who i áamcaWl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/hepropocsnf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641313 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-th=style="foea-eize: 17.076923076923pt;h=acia-label="Aepropocsnf (42rptons)">Aepropocsnfl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/hepropologiah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-4191 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-4h=style="foea-eize: 10.153846153846pt;h=acia-label="hepropologia (14rptons)">aepropologial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/cf iurah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-10831 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-5etstyle="foea-eize: 12.307692307692pt;h=acia-label="Cf iura (20rptons)">Cf iural/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/cf iura-e-devecvolvpm nto"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1521910rayg-esrk-hanhtion-6h=style="foea-eize: 12.615384615385pt;h=acia-label="Cf iura hsD vecvolvpm nto (21 ptons)">Cf iura hsD vecvolvpm ntol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/cf iura-e-dignvdade-huaseah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1969053 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-7h=style="foea-eize: 22pt;h=acia-label="Cf iura hsdignvdade Huasea (88 ptons)">Cf iura hsdignvdade Huaseal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/dtstdibp izecao"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641191 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-8"tstyle="foea-eize: 145461538461538pt;h=acia-label="dtstdibp ize/a>o (28 ptons)">dtstdibp ize/a>ol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/dtsecvolvpm nto-su D vecvolvpm nto Su l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/dignvdade-huaseah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641217rayg-esrk-hanhtion-10h=style="foea-eize: 105461538461538pt;h=acia-label="Dignvdade Huasea (15 ptons)">Dignvdade Huaseal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/dignvdade-huasea-dl itos-huaseos-museologia-spucaah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1969048rayg-esrk-hanhtion-1th=style="foea-eize: 105153846153846pt;h=acia-label="Dignvdade Huasea; Dl itos Huaseos; Museologia Soucaaa(14rptons)">Dignvdade Huasea; Dl itos Huaseos; Museologia Soucaal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/di itos-huaseos-e-ambsenueh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-2373097rayg-esrk-hanhtion-1th=style="foea-eize: 11.692307692308pt;h=acia-label="Dl itos Huaseos hsambsenue (18 ptons)">Dl itos Huaseos hsambsenuel/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/dio c idade-cf iura h=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-122025 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-1th=style="foea-eize: 9.6923076923077pt;h=acia-label="dmv c idade tu iursl (13 ptons)">div c idade tu iursll/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/eofmuseush=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641341 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-14h=style="foea-eize: 165153846153846pt;h=acia-label="Eofmuseus (36 ptons)">Eofmuseusl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/eofnonha-tsiotivah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641223 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-15etstyle="foea-eize: 145923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Eofnonha Csiotiva (30rptons)">Eofnonha Csiotival/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/ea40acao"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-122058rayg-esrk-hanhtion-16h=style="foea-eize: 9.6923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Ea40a/a>o (13 ptons)">Ea40a/a>ol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/ea40acao-pop dar" o sns="ayg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641382 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-t7h=style="foea-eize: 9.6923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Ea40a/a>o Pop dar (13 ptons)">Ea40a/a>o Pop darl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/eetoepros-de-museologiah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245371 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-18"tstyle="foea-eize: 105153846153846pt;h=acia-label="Eetoepros dhsMuseologia (14rptons)">Eetoepros dhsMuseologial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/europah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-4216 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-19h=style="foea-eize: 11.384615384615pt;h=acia-label="Europa (17rptons)">Europal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/excwlsf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641276 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-20h=style="foea-eize: 125923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Excwlsf (22rptons)">Excwlsfl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/fbaeto-0hssanf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-2373093 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-2th=style="foea-eize: 8pt;h=acia-label="Fbaeto Chssanf (10rptons)">Fbaeto Chssanfl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/fboeanhoish=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-752306 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-2th=style="foea-eize: 165923076923077pt;h=acia-label="foieanhois (41 ptons)">foieanhoisl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/ liwslizacao"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-122226 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-2th=style="foea-eize: 12.615384615385pt;h=acia-label="Gliwsliza/a>o (21 ptons)">Gliwsliza/a>ol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/lusofoeiah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245492 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-24h=style="foea-eize: 8.61538461538460t;h=acia-label="Lusofoeia (11 ptons)">Lusofoeial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/lusotopiah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641342 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-25etstyle="foea-eize: 9.07692307692310t;h=acia-label="Lusotopia (12rptons)">Lusotopial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologiah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641337rayg-esrk-hanhtion-26h=style="foea-eize: 8pt;h=acia-label="Museologia (10rptons)">Museologial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologia-e-cidadeh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1969179 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-27h=style="foea-eize: 11.692307692308pt;h=acia-label="Museologia hsCidade (18 ptons)">Museologia hsCidadel/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologia-e- liwslizacao"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245554 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-t8"tstyle="foea-eize: 105153846153846pt;h=acia-label="Museologia hsGliwsliza/a>o (14rptons)">Museologia hsGliwsliza/a>ol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologia-meoacmalh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641340rayg-esrk-hanhtion-29h=style="foea-eize: 14.7692307692310t;h=acia-label="Museologia Ieoacmal (29 ptons)">Museologia Ieoacmall/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologia-nonadah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641359 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-30h=style="foea-eize: 125615384615385pt;h=acia-label="Museologia Nónada (21 ptons)">Museologia Nónadal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologia-spucaah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245509 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-3th=style="foea-eize: 20.923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Museologia Soucaaa(74rptons)">Museologia Soucaal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/odmh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245578rayg-esrk-hanhtion-3th=style="foea-eize: 11.692307692308pt;h=acia-label="ODM (18 ptons)">ODMl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/odsh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245576 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-3th=style="foea-eize: 185461538461538pt;h=acia-label="ODS (52rptons)">ODSl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/pesis-2015eto sns="ayg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641205 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-34h=style="foea-eize: 80t;h=acia-label="Pscml 2015 (10rptons)">Pscml 2015l/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/pecsrm nto-mecsdiona h=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-2373092 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-35etstyle="foea-eize: 8pt;h=acia-label="Pecsrm nto Mecsdiona (10rptons)">Pecsrm nto Mecsdiona l/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/saude- liwslh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641345 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-36h=style="foea-eize: 19.538461538462pt;h=acia-label="SaúdhsGliwsle(61 ptons)">SaúdhsGliwsll/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/sdgh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245579 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-37h=style="foea-eize: 14.307692307692pt;h=acia-label="SDG (27rptons)">SDGl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/spucodramah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245385 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-38"tstyle="foea-eize: 12.307692307692pt;h=acia-label="spucodrama (20rptons)">spucodramal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/teeria-da-wmlteria-th=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245479 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-39h=style="foea-eize: 145307692307692pt;h=acia-label="Teeria da Hmltória (27rptons)">Teeria da Hmltórial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/teeria-do-devecvolvpm nto"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245488 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-40h=style="foea-eize: 8.61538461538460t;h=acia-label="Teeria dosD vecvolvpm nto (11 ptons)">Teeria dosD vecvolvpm ntol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/teeria-museologicah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641263 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-4th=style="foea-eize: 9.6923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Teeria Museológi0r (13 ptons)">Teeria Museológi0rl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/tsansi0rf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245355 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-4th=style="foea-eize: 145923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Tsansi/a>o (30rptons)">Tsansi/a>ol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/urbanismf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-11795 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-4th=style="foea-eize: 9.07692307692310t;h=acia-label="Urbanismf (12rptons)">Urbanismfl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/urbanismf-e-dignvdade-huaseah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1969066 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-44h=style="foea-eize: 18.307692307692pt;h=acia-label="Urbanismf hsDignvdade Huasea (si ptons)">Urbanismf hsDignvdade Huaseal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/wha1te-conjanhnh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-3571 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-45etstyle="foea-eize: 105923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Wha1te Bonjanhn (16 ptons)">Wha1te Bonjanhnl/a>l/li> l/div> l/a idh>l/div>
    lh1 o sns="tidgtt-title">UltímoWl/h1> lul>
  • Árvhcwodhs Memórias – Lugtrodhsencoepros O icinaodhsmuseologios oucaaasobcwoDiv c idade Cf iurall/a> lspha o sns="hant-daueh>13/12/2017
  • Marxismf hsEoflogia, rwencoeproeoecwlsário POR EDUARDO MANCUSOl/a> lspha o sns="hant-daueh>05/12/2017
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  • l/a idh>lr idhsid="esrkcat-122619h=o sns="tidgtt tidgtt_esrks">lh1 o sns="tidgtt-title">Museologial/h1> luh t sns='xoxynwlogaoll'>
  • lreded s"http://0hsamuzambske.wfrdhodss.ofm/h=title="EsphçemdhsSabeods hsMemóriah=targe1" _black">ChsasMuss-amb-skel/a>
  • lreded s"https://www.oenebaok.ofm/mboupl/ieve?tmgacaospucomuseologio/h=title="Mivhm ntoMuseologia
  • lreded s"http://amussacte.hymetwwnes.org/ etegory/mussus-e-expanhcens"tag">dto-wfrkerh=title="Um e phçemdhsreflexãf hm Tcrncada Acthsensys Mussush=targe1" _top">Museds hsExpanh/a>ds ;re 11; a.muss.actel/a>
  • lreded s"http://nonu posysmussus.hymetwwnes.org/"tag">df s edoto-wfrkerh=title="Esphçemdhdi0rdo àsmuseologioh=targe1" _top">No Mu ponsys Mussusl/a>
  • lreded s"http://www.nhnom-hcem.oeth=title="Mivhm ntoNavasMuseologial/a>
  • l/a idh> lr idh=id="rss-7h=o sns="tidgtt tidgtt_rss">lh1 o sns="tidgtt-title">lreo sns="rsstidgtth=wref="http://0hae pa.org/futn5php? et=28th> lreo sns="rsstidgtth=wref="http://0hae pa.org/ssac0w.html?psimary=fsubjthi&fsubjthi=28th>Chae pa ;re 11; Iddeaitél tu iurnllesl/a>
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    • lreo sns='rsstidgtt' href='http://0hae pa.org/424609'>L e
    • lreo sns='rsstidgtt' href='http://0hae pa.org/424336'>Gen mhannaipors p ctitionnéesl/a>
    • lreo sns='rsstidgtt' href='http://0hae pa.org/424207'>L e« ncds » lehimage o:orphrochelftrhtiqu s dhlfhootiqu s photo bapwiqu s handhslos oucawpritél/a>
    l/a idh>lr idh=id="m pa-7h=o sns="tidgtt tidgtt_m pa">lh1 o sns="tidgtt-title">M pa
    • lrewref="https:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/wp-login5php">Inicitronessãfl/a>
    • lrewref="http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/futnh>RSSl/abbr>nsys cti,oWl/a>
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    • lrewref="https://pt.wfrdhodss.org/h=title="Csioponofm WfrdPodss,splataoacmamdhsptbli0r/a>o pdssoa msem&aucrc;eai0r dhsvheguscda.">WfrdPodss.orgl/a>
    lr idh=id="ayg_o aud-9h=o sns="tidgtt tidgtt_ayg_o aud">lh1 o sns="tidgtt-title">Etiqu pasl/h1>
    luh t sns='wp-ahg-o aud'=aole='ln?t'>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/hjuda-ao-devecvolvpm nto"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245532 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-th=style="foea-eize: 8pt;h=acia-label="Ajuda aosD vecvolvpm nto (10rptons)">Ajuda aosD vecvolvpm ntol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/ha1teacens-o i ti0hs"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1521844 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-th=style="foea-eize: 20.153846153846pt;h=acia-label="ha1tea/a> Who i áamcaW (67rptons)">ha1tea/a>ds o i áamcaWl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/ayg/aepropocsnf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641313 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-th=style="foea-eize: 17.076923076923pt;h=acia-label="Aepropocsnf (42rptons)">Aepropocsnfl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/hepropologiah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-4191 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-4h=style="foea-eize: 10.153846153846pt;h=acia-label="hepropologia (14rptons)">aepropologial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/cf iurah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-10831 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-5etstyle="foea-eize: 12.307692307692pt;h=acia-label="Cf iura (20rptons)">Cf iural/a>
  • lreded s"http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/ayg/tu iura-e-devecvolvpm nto"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1521910rayg-esrk-hanhtion-6h=style="foea-eize: 12.615384615385pt;h=acia-label="Cf iura hsD vecvolvpm nto (21 ptons)">Cf iura hsD vecvolvpm ntol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/cf iurs-e-dignvdade-huaseah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1969053 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-7h=style="foea-eize: 22pt;h=acia-label="Cf iura hsdignvdade Huasea (88 ptons)">Cf iura hsdignvdade Huaseal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/dtstdibp izecao"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641191 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-8"tstyle="foea-eize: 145461538461538pt;h=acia-label="dtstdibp ize/a>o (28 ptons)">dtstdibp ize/a>ol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/dtsecvolvpm nto-su D vecvolvpm nto Su l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/dignvdade-huaseah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641217rayg-esrk-hanhtion-10h=style="foea-eize: 105461538461538pt;h=acia-label="Dignvdade Huasea (15 ptons)">Dignvdade Huaseal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/dignvdade-huasea-dl itos-huaseos-museologia-spucaah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1969048rayg-esrk-hanhtion-1th=style="foea-eize: 105153846153846pt;h=acia-label="Dignvdade Huasea; Dl itos Huaseos; Museologia Soucaaa(14rptons)">Dignvdade Huasea; Dl itos Huaseos; Museologia Soucaal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/di itos-huaseos-e-ambsenueh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-2373097rayg-esrk-hanhtion-1th=style="foea-eize: 11.692307692308pt;h=acia-label="Dl itos Huaseos hsambsenue (18 ptons)">Dl itos Huaseos hsambsenuel/a>
  • lreded s"http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/ayg/div c idade-cf iura h=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-122025 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-1th=style="foea-eize: 9.6923076923077pt;h=acia-label="dmv c idade tu iursl (13 ptons)">div c idade tu iursll/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/eofmuseush=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641341 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-14h=style="foea-eize: 165153846153846pt;h=acia-label="Eofmuseus (36 ptons)">Eofmuseusl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/eofnonha-tsiotivah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641223 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-15etstyle="foea-eize: 145923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Eofnonha Csiotiva (30rptons)">Eofnonha Csiotival/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/ea40acao"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-122058rayg-esrk-hanhtion-16h=style="foea-eize: 9.6923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Ea40a/a>o (13 ptons)">Ea40a/a>ol/a>
  • lreded s"http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/ayg/ea40acao-pop dar" o sns="ayg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641382 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-t7h=style="foea-eize: 9.6923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Ea40a/a>o Pop dar (13 ptons)">Ea40a/a>o Pop darl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/eetoepros-de-museologiah=o sns="ayg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245371 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-18"tstyle="foea-eize: 105153846153846pt;h=acia-label="Eetoepros dhsMuseologia (14rptons)">Eetoepros dhsMuseologial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/europah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-4216 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-19h=style="foea-eize: 11.384615384615pt;h=acia-label="Europa (17rptons)">Europal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/excwlsf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641276 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-20h=style="foea-eize: 125923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Excwlsf (22rptons)">Excwlsfl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/fbaeto-0hssanf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-2373093 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-2th=style="foea-eize: 8pt;h=acia-label="Fbaeto Chssanf (10rptons)">Fbaeto Chssanfl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/fboeanhoish=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-752306 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-2th=style="foea-eize: 165923076923077pt;h=acia-label="foieanhois (41 ptons)">foieanhoisl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/ liwslizacao"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-122226 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-2th=style="foea-eize: 12.615384615385pt;h=acia-label="Gliwsliza/a>o (21 ptons)">Gliwsliza/a>ol/a>
  • lreded s"http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/ayg/lusofoeiah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245492 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-24h=style="foea-eize: 8.61538461538460t;h=acia-label="Lusofoeia (11 ptons)">Lusofoeial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/lusotopiah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641342rayg-esrk-hanhtion-25etstyle="foea-eize: 9.07692307692310t;h=acia-label="Lusotopia (12rptons)">Lusotopial/a>
  • lreded s"http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/ayg/mussflogiah=o sns="ayg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641337rayg-esrk-hanhtion-26h=style="foea-eize: 8pt;h=acia-label="Museologia (10rptons)">Museologial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologia-e-cidadeh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1969179 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-27h=style="foea-eize: 11.692307692308pt;h=acia-label="Mussflogia hsCidade (18 ptons)">Museologia hsCidadel/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologia-e- liwslizacao"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245554 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-t8"tstyle="foea-eize: 105153846153846pt;h=acia-label="Museologia hsGliwsliza/a>o (14rptons)">Museologia hsGliwsliza/a>ol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologia-meoacmalh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641340rayg-esrk-hanhtion-29h=style="foea-eize: 14.7692307692310t;h=acia-label="Museologia Ieoacmal (29 ptons)">Mussflogia Ieoacmall/a>
  • lrewref="http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/ayg/mussflogia-nonadah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641359 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-30h=style="foea-eize: 125615384615385pt;h=acia-label="Museologia Nónada (21 ptons)">Museologia Nónadal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/museologia-spucaah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245509 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-3th=style="foea-eize: 20.923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Museologia Soucaaa(74rptons)">Museologia Soucaal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/odmh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245578rayg-esrk-hanhtion-3th=style="foea-eize: 11.692307692308pt;h=acia-label="ODM (18 ptons)">ODMl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/odsh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245576 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-3th=style="foea-eize: 185461538461538pt;h=acia-label="ODS (52rptons)">ODSl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhame hymetwwnes.org/ayg/p cis-2015eto sns="ayg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641205 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-34h=style="foea-eize: 80t;h=acia-label="Pscml 2015 (10rptons)">Pscml 2015l/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/pecsrm nto-mecsdiona h=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-2373092rayg-esrk-hanhtion-35etstyle="foea-eize: 8pt;h=acia-label="Pecsrm nto Mecsdiona (10rptons)">Pecsrm nto Mecsdiona l/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/saude- liwslh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641345 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-36h=style="foea-eize: 19.538461538462pt;h=acia-label="SaúdhsGliwsle(61 ptons)">SaúdhsGliwsll/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/sdgh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245579 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-37h=style="foea-eize: 14.307692307692pt;h=acia-label="SDG (27rptons)">SDGl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/ayg/spucodramah=o sns="ayg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245385 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-38"tstyle="foea-eize: 12.307692307692pt;h=acia-label="spucodrama (20rptons)">spucodramal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/teeria-da-wmlteria-th=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245479 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-39h=style="foea-eize: 145307692307692pt;h=acia-label="Teeria da Hmltória (27rptons)">Teeria da Hmltórial/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/teeria-do-devecvolvpm nto"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245488 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-40h=style="foea-eize: 8.61538461538460t;h=acia-label="Teeria dosD vecvolvpm nto (11 ptons)">Teeria dosD vecvolvpm ntol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/teeria-museologicah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1641263 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-4th=style="foea-eize: 9.6923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Teeria Museológi0r (13 ptons)"cTeeria Mussflógi0rl/a>
  • lreded s"http:// liwslwlrht hymetwwnes.org/ayg/tsansi0rf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1245355 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-4th=style="foea-eize: 145923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Tsansi/a>o (30rptons)">Tsansi/a>ol/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/urbanismf"to sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-11795 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-4th=style="foea-eize: 9.07692307692310t;h=acia-label="Urbanismf (12rptons)">Urbanismfl/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/urbanismf-e-dignvdade-huaseah=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-1969066 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-44h=style="foea-eize: 18.307692307692pt;h=acia-label="Urbanismf hsDignvdade Huasea (si ptons)">Urbanismf hsDignvdade Huaseal/a>l/li>
  • lreded s"http://ms, &awhamenhypo wnnss.zat/rhg/wha1te-conjanhnh=o sns="ahg-o aud-esrk ayg-esrk-3571 ayg-esrk-hanhtion-45etstyle="foea-eize: 105923076923077pt;h=acia-label="Wha1te Bonjanhn (16 ptons)">Wha1te Bonjanhnl/a>l/li> l/div> l/a idh>
  • lr idh=id="authors-2h=o sns="tidgtt tidgtt_ln?t_authors">lh1 o sns="tidgtt-title">Auteresl/h1>
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    l/a idh>lr idh=id="page -2h=o sns="tidgtt tidgtt_page ">lh1 o sns="tidgtt-title">Páginasl/h1>
      1: What ml Su 2:sEofnonhcsD o lopm nt – How WhsMeasure It, How It V cie Acou p tww Wfrldl/a> ChderncadhsCompo sGliwsleHlrht ge ;re 11; Lo0hasMemeriesl/a> Diário dhsBfrdal/a> luh t sns='cwmldren'> O Barrotoo:oA oacmamda fu?ta / Baroqu : TwhsFashionmP coacmaecwl/a> Epintemelogias do Sul ;re 11; Mozambskel/a> Vi gensnna Amécsca do Sul ;re 11; O Barrotoohsa Fu?tal/a> Vi gensnno Boisil ;re 11; O Barrotoohsa Fu?tal/a> Vi gem aosBoisil BarrotoohsFu?ta IIl/a> BarrotooIIIl/a> Mused do pesc alo do Nembol/a>
    l/li> l/li> ChderncadhsIeve?tmga/a>o ;re 11; Mozambske ;re 11; p cte Il/a> Mozambske II:sE?tusysnlobcwofoieanhoissa sull/a> l/li> Foieanhoisl/a> Vi gensnna Foieanhoil/a> l/li> Encoepros hsConfrital/a> Encoue1tessin Nartwwn Irlacd ;re 11; Confrit Resolution Protdssl/a> l/li> Geo-0u iurs do mar hartuguêsl/a> l/li> Museu AfoiDight l-E?ta/a>o Partugall/a> Escravaiursl/a> O 0hsonsy cemiterioadhsescravosl/a> l/li> Ptbli0a/a>dsl/a> luh t sns='cwmldren'> Museology acd Su l/li> ChsasMuss-amb-ske e phçemdhsmusselogiasinoacma l/a> luh t sns='cwmldren'> Museologia e Neurocsêncitl/a> ParasuaoDiálogonofm asMuseologia INFORMALsa p ctirnsy Sul.l/a> Epintemelogias do Sul e Teeria Críai0rl/a> ActurosE?cowar e a Teeria Críai0rnsy D vecvolvpm ntol/a> l/li> Musselogia e ObjttossDight isl/a> l/li> Musselogia e Ie1tesubjttividadel/a> Musselogia e Ieava/a>o Soucaal/a> RedeadhsEofmussus hm Partugall/a>l/li> Musselogia, Inova/a>o hsEmhod ederismf Soucaal/a> MussusadhsCfmunidade hm Partugall/a>l/li> l/li> CréditoWl/a> lr idh=id=" etegorie -4h=o sns="tidgtt tidgtt_ etegorie h>

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